http://www.keyboard-shop.co.uk/，http://www.keyboards-shop.com/，http://www.all-keyboard.com/Artemis was also connected with the Minoan "cult of the tree," an ecstatic and orgiastic cult which is represented on Minoan seals and Mycenean goldrings.
Paean (Pa-ja-wo) is probably the precursor of the Greek physician of the gods in Iliad. He was the personification of the magic-song which was supposed to "heal" the patient. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard
Later it became also a song of victory (παιάν). The magicians was also called "seer- doctors" (ιατρομάντεις) a function which was also applied later to Apollo.
Athena (A-ta-na) appears in a Linear B inscription at Knossos from the Late Minoan II-era. The form A-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja (mistress Athena) is similar with the later Homeric form. DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard
She was probably the goddess of the palace who is represented in the famous "Procession-fresco" at Knossos.). In a Myceneanfresco, there is a composition of two women extending their hands towards a central figure who is covered by an enormous figure-eight shield. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard
The central figure is the war-goddess with her palladium (classical antiquity), or her palladium in an aniconic representation.
Dionysos (Di-wo-ni-so) appears in some inscriptions. His name interpreted as "son of Zeus", has probably Thraco-Phrygian origin. Later his cult is related withBoeotia and Phocis, where it seems that was introduced before the end of the Mycenean age. HP Envy 15-1100 Series Laptop Keyboard
This may explain why his myths and cult were centered in Thebes, and why the mountain Parnassos in Phocis was the place of his orgies. However in the Homeric poems he is the consort of the Minoan vegetation goddess Ariadne. He is the only Greek god who dies in order to be reborn, as it often appears in the religions of the Orient. HP G72-b20SG Laptop Keyboard
His myth is related with the Minoan myth of the "divine child" who was abandoned by his mother and then brought up by the powers of nature. Similar myths appear in the cults of Hyakinthos (Amyklai),Erichthonios (Athens) and Ploutos (Eleusis).
Other divinities who can be found in later periods have been identified, such as the couple Zeus–Hera, Hermes, Eileithyia and Erinya. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard
The names of Apollo and Aphrodite are absent.
There were some sites of importance for cults, such as Lerna, typically in the form of house sanctuaries, for the free-standing temple of the familiar kind, containing a cult image in its cella with an open-air altar before it, was a later development. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard
Certain buildings found in citadels having a central room, themegaron, of oblong shape surrounded by small rooms may have served as places of worship. Aside from that, the existence of a domestic cult may be supposed. Some shrines have been located, as at Phylakopi on Melos, HP Pavilion dv6-3110se Laptop Keyboard
where have been found a considerable number of statuettes undoubtedly fashioned to serve as offerings, and it can be supposed from their archaeological strata that sites such as Delphi, Dodona, Delos, Eleusis, Lerna and Abae were already important shrines, and in Crete several Minoan shrines show continuity into LM III, a period of Minoan-Mycenaean culture. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard
The principal Mycenaean towns were well fortified. The town could be situated on an acropolis as in Athens or Tiryns, against a large hill as in Mycenae, or on the coastal plain, like Gla or Pylos. Besides the citadels, there are also isolated forts that undoubtedly served to militarily control territory. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard
Mycenaean walls were often made in a fashion called cyclopean, which means that they were constructed of large, unworked boulders up to eight meters (26 ft) thick, loosely fitted without the clay mortar of the day. Different types of entrances or exits can be seen: monumental gates, access ramps, hidden doors, and vaulted galleries for escaping in case of a siege. HP 405963-001 Laptop Keyboard
Fear of attack meant that the chosen site must have a cistern or well at its disposal.
The Mycenaean sites are composed of different types of residences. The smallest are rectangular in form and measure between 5 and 20 metres (16–66 ft) on a side. These were the houses of the lowest classes. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard
They could have one or several rooms; the latter become more widespread in more recent periods. On a more developed level are found larger residences, measuring about 20 to 35 meters (66 to 115 ft) on a side, made up of many rooms and central courtyards. Their layout resembles that of a palace. HP Pavilion dv4-1241tx Laptop Keyboard
It is not, however, certain that these were indeed the residences of the Mycenaean aristocrats; another theory is that they were palace annexes, being often situated next to them.
The best examples of the Mycenaean palace are seen in the excavations at Mycenae, Tiryns and Pylos. That these were administrative centers is shown by the records found there. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard
From an architectural point of view, they were the heirs of the Minoan palaces and also of other palaces built on the Greek mainland during the Middle Age. They were ranged around a group of courtyards each opening upon several rooms of different dimensions, such as storerooms and workshops, as well as reception halls and living quarters. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard
The heart of the palace was the megaron. This was the throne room, laid out around a circular hearth surrounded by four columns, the throne generally being found on the right-hand side upon entering the room. The staircases found in the palace of Pylos indicate palaces had two stories. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard
Located on the top floor were probably the private quarters of the royal family and some storerooms. These palaces have yielded a wealth of artifacts and fragmentary frescoes.
The most recent find is a Mycenaean palace near the village of Xirokambi, in Laconia. As of early 2009, the excavation is at its first stages and artifacts uncovered so far include clay vessels and figurines, frescoes and three Linear Btablets. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard
Preliminary findings indicate that one of the tablets contains an inventory of about 500 daggers and another is an inventory for textiles. The discovery was announced at the Athens Archaeological Society on April 28, 2009.
Mycenaeans made a great deal of pottery. HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard
Archaeologists have found a great quantity of pottery from the Mycenaean age, of widely diverse styles—stirrup jars, pitchers, kraters, chalices sometimes called "champagne coupes" after their shape, etc. The vessels vary in size. Their conformations remained quite consistent throughout the Mycenaean period, up through LHIIIB, wCOMPAQ Presario CQ40-132TU Laptop Keyboard
hen production increased considerably, notably in Argolis whence came great numbers exported outside Greece. The products destined for export were generally more luxurious and featured heavily worked painted decorations incorporating mythic, warrior, or animal motifs. Another type of vessel, in metal (normally bronze), HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard
has been found in sizeable quantities at Mycenaean sites. The forms of these were rather tripods, basins, or lamps. A few examples of vessels in faience and ivory are also known.
The Mycenaean period has not yielded sculpture of any great size. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard
The statuary of the period consists for the most part of small terracotta figurines found at almost every Mycenaean site in mainland Greece, in tombs, in settlement debris, and occasionally in cult contexts (Tiryns, Agios Konstantinos on Methana). The majority of these figurines are female and anthropomorphic or zoomorphic. ACER Aspire 5810T-8929 Laptop Keyboard
The female figurines can be subdivided into three groups which were popular at different periods: the earliest are the Phi-type: these look like the letter phi and their arms give the upper body of the figurine a rounded shape. The Psi-type looks like the letter psi: these have outstretched upraised arms. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard
The latest (12th century BC) are the Tau-type: these figurines look like the Greek letter tau: with folded(?) arms at right angles to the body. Most figurines wear a large 'polos' hat. They are painted with stripes or zigzags in the same manner as the contemporary pottery and presumably made by the same potters. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard
Their purpose is uncertain, but they may have served as both votive objects and toys: some are found in children's graves but the vast majority of fragments are from domestic rubbish deposits. The presence of numbers of these figurines on sites where worship took place in the Archaic and Classical periods Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard
(c 200 below the sanctuary of Athena at Delphi, others at the temple of Aphaia on Aegina, at the sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas above Epidauros and at Amyklae near Sparta, for example), suggests both that many were indeed religious in nature, perhaps as votives, but also that later places of worship may well have first been used in the Mycenaean period. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard
Larger male, female or bovine terracotta wheelmade figures are much rarer. An important group was found in the Temple at Mycenae together with coiled clay snakes, while others have been found at Tiryns and in the East and West Shrines at Phylakopi on the island of Melos. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard
The painting of the Mycenaean age was much influenced by that of the Minoan age. Fragments of wall paintings have been found in or around the palaces (Pylos, Mycenae, Tiryns) and in domestic contexts (Zygouries) while the largest complete wall painting depicting three female figures, probably goddesses, was found in the so-called Cult Centre at Mycenae. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard
Various themes are represented: hunting, bull leaping (tauromachy), battle scenes, processions etc. Some scenes may be part of mythological narratives, but if so their meaning eludes us. Other frescoes include geometric or stylised motifs, also used on painted pottery (see above). ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard
Military items have been found among the treasures of the Mycenaean age. The most impressive work is that of the Dendra panoply, a complete suit of Mycenaean armor and the oldest form of metal armor. The cuirass is made up of bronze plates sewn to a leather garment. HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard
The weight of this armor must have hindered the mobility of a warrior, and it is for this reason it is supposed that it was worn by a warrior riding in a chariot.
The typical Mycenaean helmet, in use from the 17th to the 10th centuries BC, was made of cut segments of boar's tusk sewn to a leather or cloth backing. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard
This type is illustrated in ivory relief plaques found in the shaft graves of the 17th and 16th centuries BC and in wall paintings of that era from Akrotiri on Thera (Santorini) and of the 13th century BC in the so-called Palace of Nestor at Pylos. Groups of boar's tusk plates from the helmets themselves have been found at many sites, SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F laptop keyboard
including Mycenae, Prosymna, Thermon and Elateia, as well as in southern Italy. This is the type of helmet which is described by Homer several hundred years later.
Two types of shields were used: the "figure eight" or "fiddle" shield, and a rectangular type, the "tower" shield, rounded on the top. SONY VAIO VGN-CR32L laptop keyboard
They were made of wood and leather, and were of such a large size that if he wished to a warrior could crouch behind his shield and have his whole body covered.
Offensive arms were made of bronze. Spears and javelins have been found, and also an assortment of swords of different sizes, SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard
designed for striking with the point and with the edge. Daggers and arrows, attesting to the existence of archery, compose the remainder of the armament found from this period.
The usual form of burial in the Late Helladic was inhumation. The dead were almost always buried in cemeteries outside the residential zones and only exceptionally within the settlements TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard
(the most famous burials in Grave Circle A originally lay outside the citadel and were only brought within it when the citadel wall was extended c 1250 BC).
The earliest Mycenaean burials were mostly in individual graves in the form of a pit or a stone lined cist and offerings were limited to pottery and occasional items of jewellery. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5277 laptop keyboard
A large cemetery with burials of this kind spread around the northern and western slopes of the citadel at Mycenae. Groups of pit or cist graves containing elite members of the community were sometimes covered by a tumulus (mound) in the manner established since the Middle Helladic period. TOSHIBA Satellite L300D-242 laptop keyboard
It has been argued that this form dates back to the oldest periods of Indo-European settlement in Greece, and that its roots are to be found in the Balkan cultures of the third millennium BC, and even the Kurgan culture but an indigenous development is more likely. TOSHIBA Satellite P305-S89041 laptop keyboard
Pit and cist graves remained in use for single burials throughout the Mycenaean period alongside more elaborate family graves (see below).
The shaft graves at Mycenae within the two grave circles (A+B) belong to the same period and seem to represent an alternative manner of grouping elite or royal burials – and isolating them from those of the majority. HP G72-b20SG laptop keyboard
Circle B is the earlier of the two groups, already in use in the MH period, and contains lavish grave goods – gold and silver, jewellery, weapons and pottery. Circle A, excavated by Heinrich Schliemann enclosed fewer but extraordinarily well provided graves.
Beginning also in the Late Helladic are to be seen communal tombs of rectangular form.[ HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard
It is difficult to establish whether the different forms of burial represent a social hierarchization, as was formerly thought, with the tholoi being the tombs of the elite rulers, the individual tombs those of the leisure class, and the communal tombs those of the people. Cremations increased in number over the course of the period, becoming quite numerous in LH III C. SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard
This is perhaps proof of the arrival of a new population in Greece. The most impressive tombs of the Mycenaean era are the monumental royal tombs of Mycenae, undoubtedly intended for the royal family of the city. The most famous is the Tomb of Agamemnon (the Treasury of Atreus), which is in the form of a tholos. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard
Nearby are other tombs (known as "Circle A"), popularly identified with Clytemnestra and Aigisthos. All contained impressive treasures, exhumed by Schliemann during the excavation of Mycenae. It has been argued that different dynasties or factions may have competed through conspicuous burial, ACER Extensa 5635Z laptop keyboard
whereby grave circle A represents a new faction in the ascendancy (at this time, LH I, the relative wealth and consistency of 'B' burials declines). The Mycenaean "tholoi" may, again, represent another factional grouping, or a further formalization in burial practices by the faction previously buried in A. SONY VAIO VGN-FS285H laptop keyboard
Nevertheless, there is a demonstrably apparent expansion in relative size, wealth/cost expenditure, and visibility in the construction of these graves over this period, coinciding with increased foreign/trading contacts and the further entrenchment of the palatial economy. SONY VAIO VGN-CR410E laptop keyboard
The timing and interpretation of the end Mycenaean period poses an array of questions that have yet to be answered. The end of LH III B1 was marked by some destruction, in particular at Mycenae. By LH III B2, an augmentation of the Mycenaean systems of defense can be seen, a sign of increasing insecurity. SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard
But this does not seem to have been a period of crisis, because these levels have yielded archaeological material that shows a degree of wealth in no way inferior to that of previous periods. The end of this period is nevertheless marked by a number of destructions in the greater part of the Mycenaean sites on mainland Greece. HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca laptop keyboard
LH III C saw a decrease in the number of sites in Greece, which might have been considerable in certain regions (nine-tenths of the sites in Boeotia disappeared, and two-thirds in Argolis). Yet certain sites such as Mycenae and Tiryns continued to be inhabited, and the material culture found there continues to exhibit Mycenaean traits, FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 laptop keyboard
such that LH III C is considered to be a level of Mycenaean civilization. However, a new type of ceramic appeared, called "barbarian" because it was formerly attributed to foreign invaders, and there was also a continuing increase in the practice of cremation.
Several explanations have been advanced for the causes of the decline of Mycenaean civilization in this period. Those concerning natural factors (climate change, earthquakes) are considered more controversial. The two most common theories are population movement and internal conflict. SONY VAIO VGN-NW25E/B laptop keyboard
The first attributes the destruction of Mycenaean sites to invaders. Sometimes The Illyrians or the Dorians are invoked, sometimes the Sea People.
Some scholars believe that the destruction of the Mycenaean centres, was caused by the wandering of northern people (Illyrian migration). SONY VAIO VGN-NW200 laptop keyboard
They destroyed the palace of Iolcos (LH III C-1), the palace of Thebes ( late LH III B), then they crossed Isthmus of Corinth (end of LH III B) they destroyed Mycenae, Tiryns andPylos, and finally they returned northward. However Pylos was destroyed by a sea-attack, ACER Extensa 2600 laptop keyboard
the invaders didn't leave behind traces of weapons or graves, and it cannot be proved that all the sites were destroyed about the same time 
The movements of people to the Middle East at this period, are mentioned in Egyptian inscriptions calling the invaders by the name of the Sea People, are quite real. SONY VAIO VGN-CS21Z/Q laptop keyboard
It is known that these people were responsible for numerous destructions in Anatolia and the Levant, and finally they attacked Egypt in several phases (ca. 1301-1164). Mention of a people called Eqwesh who attacked Egypt during the reign of Merneptah, in an Egyptian text of the 12th century BC has caused specialists to suppose that the Mycenaeans had taken part in these invasions (this is not certain). SONY 147996611 laptop keyboard
A country Danaja ( Danaans) with a city Mukana (propably: Mycenea) is mentioned in inscriptions from Egypt.T.Vermeule suggests that the breaking-up of the commercial networks at the end of 13th century BC, was disastrous for Greece, and it was followed by the attack of the Sea-people who were searching for new lands. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard
However most of the destructed Mycenaean sites are far from the sea, and the expedition against Troy at the end of this period shows that the sea was safe. Desborough believes that the sea was safe in central and south Aegean in this period. HP Pavilion dm1-1002tu laptop keyboard
There is the second theory, which has the Mycenaean civilization falling in the course of internal societal conflicts brought on by a rejection of the palatial system by the most underprivileged strata of society, who were impoverished at the end of the Late Helladic. This hypothesis is sometimes joined with the preceding one, SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard
mingling social divisions with ethnic divisions. However, social revolutions couldn't break out almost simultaneously throughout Greece .Mylonas believes that some developments in Argolis and attempts for recovery after 1200 BC, can be explained by an internal fighting , and by an enemy pressure, by the Dorians. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard
Even if the Dorians, were one of the causes of the Bronze age collapse, there is evidence that they brought with them some new elements of culture, a cist grave completely different from the Mycenaean "tholos", and a new dialect the Doric. It seems that the Doric tribes moved southward gradually over a number of years, SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard
and they devastated the territory, until they managed to establish themselves in the Mycenaean centres.
In this context it has to be stressed that the beginning of the Iron Age made large numbers of comparatively cheap weapons accessible. DELL 0RT129 laptop keyboard
This economic factor is also seen as a root cause of the apparition of the "Sea Peoples" in Egypt and the destruction of Ugarit and the Hittite Empire.
Whatever were the causes, the Mycenaean civilization had definitely disappeared after LH III C, when the sites of Mycenae and Tirynth were again destroyed and lost their importance. SONY VAIO VGN-FS830 laptop keyboard
This end, during the last years of the 12th century BC, occurs after a slow decline of the Mycenaean civilization, which lasted many years before dying out. The beginning of the 11th century BC opens a new context, that of the protogeometric, the beginning of the geometric period, the Greek Dark Ages of traditional historiography. SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard
The Bronze Age collapse was a transition in the Aegean Region, Southwestern Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age that historians, such as M. Liverani, S. Richard, Robert Drews, Frank J. Yurco, Amos Nur, Leonard R. Palmer, and others, believe was violent, sudden and culturally disruptive. HP Pavilion dv5-1235et laptop keyboard
The palace economy of the Aegean Region and Anatolia which characterised the Late Bronze Age was replaced, after a hiatus, by the isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages.
Between 1206 and 1150 BCE, the cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F Laptop Keyboard
and the New Kingdom of Egypt in Syria and Canaan interrupted trade routes and severely reduced literacy. In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard
The gradual end of the Dark Age that ensued saw the eventual rise of settled Syro-Hittite states in Cilicia and Syria,Aramaean kingdoms of the mid-10th century BCE in the Levant, and the eventual rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Prior to the Bronze Age collapse, Anatolia (Asia Minor) was dominated by a number of Indo-European peoples; DELL M711P Laptop Keyboard
Luwians,Hittites, Mitanni and Mycenaean Greeks, together with the Semitic Assyrians. From the 17th Century BCE, the Mitanni formed a ruling class over the Hurrians, an ancient indigenous Caucasian people who spoke a Hurro-Urartian language isolate. Similarly, the Hittites absorbed the Hattians, a people speaking a language which may have been of the North Caucasian group. DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard
Every Anatolian site that was important during the preceding Late Bronze Age shows a destruction layer, and it appears that here civilization did not recover to the level of the Indo-European Hittites for another thousand years. Hattusas, the Hittite capital, was burned - probably by Kaskians, SONY VAIO VGN-CR Laptop Keyboard
possibly aided by the Phrygians - abandoned, and never reoccupied. Karaoğlan was burned and the corpses left unburied. The Hittite Empire was destroyed by the Indo-Europeanspeaking Phrygians and by the Semitic speaking Assyrians. The Trojan city of Troy was destroyed at least twice, before being abandoned until Roman times. SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F Laptop Keyboard
The Phrygians had arrived probably over the Bosphorus in the 13th Century BCE, and laid waste to the Hittite Empire (already weakened by defeat at the hands of Kaska), before being checked by the Assyrians. Other groups of Indo-European warriors followed into the region, most prominently the Armenians, SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard
Cimmerians, and Scythians. The Semitic Arameans, Kartvelian speaking Colchians, and Hurro-Urartuans also made an appearance in parts of the region.
The catastrophe separates Late Cypriot II (LCII) from the LCIII period, with the sacking and burning of the sites of Enkomi, Kition, and Sinda, which may have occurred twice, before being abandoned. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard
During the reign of the Hittite king Tudhaliya IV, the island was briefly invaded by the Hittites, either to secure thecopper resource or as a way of preventing piracy. Shortly afterwards, the island was reconquered by his son around 1200 BCE. Some towns (Enkomi, Kition, Palaeokastro and Sinda) show traces of destruction at the end of LC IIC. SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard
Whether or not this is really an indication of a Mycenean invasion is contested. Originally, two waves of destruction, ca. 1230 BCE by the Sea Peoples and ca. 1190 BCE by Aegean refugees have been proposed. The smaller settlements of Ayios Dhimitrios and Kokkinokremnos, as well as a number of other sites, IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard
were abandoned, but do not show traces of destruction. Kokkinokremos was a short-lived settlement, where various caches concealed by smiths have been found. That no one ever returned to reclaim the treasures suggests that they were killed or enslaved.
Ancient Syria had been initially dominated by a number of indigenous Semitic speaking peoples; SONY VAIO VGN-AR670 laptop keyboard
Canaanites, Amorites, and cities of Ebla and Ugarit were prominent amongst these.
Prior to, and indeed during the Bronze Age Collapse, Syria became a battle ground between the empires of the Hittites, Assyrians, Mitanni and Egyptians, and the coastal regions came under attack from the Sea Peoples. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 laptop keyboard
From the 13th Century BCE, the Arameans came to prominence in Syria, and the region outside of thePhoenician coastal areas eventually became Aramaic speaking.
Syrian sites previously showed evidence of trade links with Mesopotamia (Assyria and Babylonia), Egypt and the Aegean in the Late Bronze Age. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard
Evidence at Ugaritshows that the destruction there occurred after the reign of Merenptah, and even the fall of Chancellor Bay. The last Bronze Age king of the Semitic state of Ugarit, Ammurapi, was a contemporary of the Hittite king Suppiluliuma II. The exact dates of his reign are unknown. HP Pavilion dv6-2110sm laptop keyboard
However, a letter by the king is preserved on one of the clay tablets found baked in the conflagration of the destruction of the city. Ammurapi stresses the seriousness of the crisis faced by many Levantine states from invasion by the advancing Sea Peoples in a dramatic response to a plea for assistance from the king of Alasiya. IBM Thinkpad Z61m laptop keyboard
Ammurapi highlights the desperate situation Ugarit faced in letter RS 18.147:
My father, behold, the enemy's ships came (here); my cities(?) were burned, and they did evil things in my country. Does not my father know that all my troops and chariots(?) are in the Land of Hatti, and all my ships are in the Land of Lukka?... IBM Thinkpad Z60t laptop keyboard
Thus, the country is abandoned to itself. May my father know it: the seven ships of the enemy that came here inflicted much damage upon us.
Unfortunately for Ugarit, no help arrived and Ugarit was burned to the ground at the end of the Bronze Age. Its destruction levels contained Late Helladic IIIB ware, but no LH IIIC (see Mycenaean period).HP Pavilion DV6-1130ei laptop keyboard
Therefore, the date of the destruction is important for the dating of the LH IIIC phase. Since an Egyptian sword bearing the name of pharaoh Merneptah was found in the destruction levels, 1190 BCE was taken as the date for the beginning of the LH IIIC. A cuneiform tablet found in 1986 shows that Ugarit was destroyed after the death of Merneptah. HP G62-b88SS laptop keyboard
It is generally agreed that Ugarit had already been destroyed by the 8th year ofRamesses III—i. e. 1178 BCE. These letters on clay tablets found baked in the conflagration of the destruction of the city speak of attack from the sea, and a letter from Alashiya (Cyprus) speaks of cities already being destroyed from attackers who came by sea. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard
It also speaks of the Ugarit fleet being absent, patrolling the Lycian coast.
The West Semitic Arameans eventually superseded the earlier Amorites, Canaanites and people of Ugarit, to whom they were ethno-linguistically related. They came to dominate the region both politically and militarily from the mid 11th century BCE until the rise of the Neo Assyrian Empire in the late 10th Century BCE, SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard
after which the entire region fell to Assyria.
Egyptian evidence shows that, from the reign of Horemheb, wandering Shasu were more problematic than the earlier Apiru. Ramesses II campaigned against them, pursuing them as far as Moab, TOSHIBA Satellite L300-13R laptop keyboard
where he established a fortress, after the near collapse at the Battle of Kadesh. During the reign of Merneptah, the Shasuthreatened the "Way of Horus" north from Gaza. Evidence shows that Deir Alla (Succoth) was destroyed after the reign of Queen Twosret. The destroyed site ofLachish was briefly reoccupied by squatters and an Egyptian garrison, HP Pavilion DV7-2043cl laptop keyboard
during the reign of Ramesses III. All centres along a coastal route from Gaza northward were destroyed, and evidence shows Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Akko, and Jaffa were burned and not reoccupied for up to thirty years. Inland Hazor, Bethel, Beit Shemesh, Eglon, Debir, and other sites were destroyed. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-218EM laptop keyboard
Refugees escaping the collapse of coastal centres may have fused with incoming nomadic and Anatolian elements to begin the growth of terraced hillside hamlets in the highlands region that was associated with the later development of the Hebrews.
None of the Mycenaean palaces of the Late Bronze Age survived HP AEAX8U00010 laptop keyboard
(with the possible exception of the Cyclopean fortifications on the Acropolis of Athens) with destruction being heaviest at palaces and fortified sites. Up to 90% of small sites in the Peloponnese were abandoned, suggesting a major depopulation. The End Bronze Age collapse marked the start of what has been called the Greek Dark Ages, Compaq Presario CQ71-412SZ laptop keyboard
which lasted for more than 400 years. Other cities, like Athens, continued to be occupied, but with a more local sphere of influence, limited evidence of trade and an impoverished culture, from which it took centuries to recover.
The Middle Assyrian Empire controlled colonies in Anatolia, which came under attack from the Phrygians (Mushki). TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5366 laptop keyboard
Tiglath-Pileser I was able to defeat and repel these attacks. The Assyrian Empire survived intact throughout much of this period, with Assyria dominating and often ruling Babylonia directly, controlling south east and south western Anatolia, north western Iran and much of northern and central Syria and Canaan, as far as the Mediterranean and Cyprus. Compaq Presario CQ42-231AX laptop keyboard
TheArameans and Phrygians were subjected, and Assyria and its colonies were not threatened by the Sea Peoples. However, after the death of Tiglath-Pileser I in 1076 BCE, Assyria withdrew to its natural borders in northern Mesopotamia. Assyria retained a stable monarchy, the best army in the world[ and an efficient civil administration, HP Pavilion dv4-1145go laptop keyboard
thus enabling it to survive the Bronze Age Collapse intact and, from the late 10th Century BCE, it once more began to assert itself internationally. However, the situation in Babylonia was very different: after the Assyrian withdrawal, new groups of Semites, such as the Aramaeansand later Chaldeans and Suteans, SONY VGN-FE780G laptop keyboard
spread unchecked into Babylonia, and its weak kings' control extended barely beyond the city limits of Babylon. Babylon was sacked by the Elamites under Shutruk-Nahhunte, and lost control of the Diyala River valley to Assyria. FUJITSU Siemens M1010 laptop keyboard
After apparently surviving for a while, the Egyptian Empire collapsed in the mid twelfth century BCE (during the reign of Ramesses VI). Previously, theMerneptah Stele spoke of attacks from Libyans, with associated people of Ekwesh, Shekelesh, SONY VAIO VGN-AR630E laptop keyboard
Lukka, Shardana and Tursha or Teresh possibly Troas, and a Canaanite revolt, in the cities of Ashkelon, Yenoam and the people of Israel. A second attack during the reign of Ramesses III involved Peleset, Tjeker, Shardana andDenyen.
Robert Drews describes the collapse as "the worst disaster in ancient history, TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard
even more calamitous than the collapse of the Western Roman Empire". A number of people have spoken of the cultural memories of the disaster as stories of a "lost golden age". Hesiod for example spoke of Ages of Gold, Silver and Bronze, separated from the modern harsh cruel world of the Age of Iron by the Age of Heroes. SONY VAIO VGN-N110G laptop keyboard
Changes in climate similar to the Younger Dryas period or the Little Ice Age punctuate human history. The local effects of these changes may cause crop failures in multiple consecutive years, leading to warfare as a last-ditch effort at survival. The triggers for climate change are still debated, LENOVO 25-011427 laptop keyboard
but ancient peoples could not have predicted nor coped with substantial climate changes.
Harvey Weiss, using the Palmer Drought Index for 35 Greek, Turkish, and Middle Eastern weather stations, showed that a drought of the kind that persisted from January 1972 would have affected all of the sites associated with the Late Bronze Age collapse.[ TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 laptop keyboard
Drought could have easily precipitated or hastened socio-economic problems and led to wars. More recently Brian Fagan has shown how the diversion of mid-winter storms, from the Atlantic to north of the Pyrenees and the Alps, bringing wetter conditions to Central Europe but drought to the Eastern Mediterranean, was associated with the Late Bronze Age collapse. HP Envy 15-1050nr laptop keyboard
Brandon L. Drake has shown how "oxygen-isotope speleothems, stable carbon isotopes, alkenone-derived sea surface temperatures, and changes in warm-species dinocysts and foraminifera in the Mediterranean indicate that the Early Iron Age was more arid than the preceding Bronze Age”.