Friday, August 30, 2013

Spain also sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest

Spain also sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

In 1768 Pierre-Antoine Véron, a young astronomer accompanying Louis Antoine de Bougainville on his voyage of exploration, established the width of the Pacific with precision for the first time in history.[11] DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

One of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789-1794. It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska, Guam and the Philippines, New Zealand, Australia and the South Pacific. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan and United States. Significant contributions to oceanographic knowledge were made by the voyages of HMSBeagle in the 1830s, with Charles Darwin aboard; HMS Challenger during the 1870s; the USS Tuscarora (1873–76); and the German Gazelle (1874–76).  HP Pavilion zv6223ea Laptop Keyboard

Although the United States gained control of Guam and the Philippines from Spain in 1898,[12] Japan controlled most of the western Pacific by 1914 and occupied many other islands during World War II. However, by the end of that war, Japan was defeated and the U.S. Pacific Fleet was the virtual master of the ocean. Since the end of World War II, many former colonies in the Pacific have become independent states. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

The Pacific separates Asia and Australia from the Americas. It may be further subdivided by the equator into northern (North Pacific) and southern (South Pacific) portions. It extends from the Antarctic region in the South to the Arcticin the north.[1] ACER Aspire 4736Z laptop keyboard

The Pacific Ocean encompasses approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 165.2 million square kilometres (63.8 million square miles) —significantly larger than Earth's entire landmass of some 150 million square kilometres (58 million square miles).[13] HP Pavilion DV7t-3100 laptop keyboard

Extending approximately 15,500 kilometres (9,600 mi) from the Bering Sea in the Arctic to the northern extent of the circumpolar Southern Ocean at 60°S (older definitions extend it to Antarctica's Ross Sea), the Pacific reaches its greatest east-west width at about 5°N latitude, where it stretches approximately 19,800 HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard

kilometres (12,300 mi) fromIndonesia to the coast of Colombia – halfway across the world, and more than five times the diameter of the Moon.[14] The lowest known point on Earth—the Mariana Trench—lies 10,911 metres (35,797 ft or 5,966 fathoms) below sea level. Its average depth is 4,028~4,188 metres (14,000 ft or 2,333 fathoms).[1] HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax laptop keyboard

Due to the effects of plate tectonics, the Pacific Ocean is currently shrinking by roughly an inch per year (2–3 cm/yr) on three sides, roughly averaging 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) a year. By contrast, the Atlantic Ocean is increasing in size.[15][16] SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E laptop keyboard

Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular western margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Tasman Sea, and Yellow Sea. HP Pavilion DV7-3165dx laptop keyboard

The Strait of Malacca joins the Pacific and the Indian Oceans on the west, and Drake Passage and the Strait of Magellan link the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean on the east. To the north, the Bering Strait connects the Pacific with the Arctic Ocean.[17] SONY VAIO VGN-NW25GF laptop keyboard

As the Pacific straddles the 180th meridian, the West Pacific (or western Pacific, near Asia) is in the Eastern Hemisphere, while the East Pacific (or eastern Pacific, near the Americas) is in the Western Hemisphere.[18] Compaq Presario CQ71-317EA laptop keyboard

For most of Magellan's voyage from the Strait of Magellan to the Philippines, the explorer indeed found the ocean peaceful. However, the Pacific is not always peaceful. Many tropical storms batter the islands of the Pacific.[19] HP Pavilion dv6-2129ev laptop keyboard

The lands around the Pacific Rim are full of volcanoes and often affected by earthquakes.[20] Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and in some cases destroyed entire towns.[21] SONY VAIO VGN-FS620 laptop keyboard

The islands entirely within the Pacific Ocean can be divided into three main groups known as Micronesia, Melanesia andPolynesia. Micronesia, which lies north of the equator and west of the International Date Line, includes the Mariana Islands in the northwest, the Caroline Islands in the centre, the Marshall Islands to the west and the islands ofKiribati in the southwest.[22][23] HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard

Melanesia, to the southwest, includes New Guinea, the world's second largest island after Greenland and by far the largest of the Pacific islands. The other main Melanesian groups from north to south are the Bismarck Archipelago, theSolomon Islands, Santa Cruz, Vanuatu, Fiji and New Caledonia.[24] TOSHIBA PK130BH2A00 laptop keyboard

The largest area, Polynesia, stretching from Hawaii in the north to New Zealand in the south, also encompasses Tuvalu,Tokelau, Samoa, Tonga and the Kermadec Islands to the west, the Cook Islands, Society Islands and Austral Islands in the center, and the Marquesas Islands, Tuamotu, Mangareva Islands and Easter Island to the east.[25] SONY VAIO VGN-CR123E laptop keyboard

Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs, and uplifted coral platforms. Continental islands lie outside the andesite line and include New Guinea, HP Pavilion dv6-2130ca laptop keyboard

the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. Some of these islands are structurally associated with nearby continents. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are Bougainville, Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands.[26] Lenovo ThinkPad T510-4339 laptop keyboard

The Coral reefs of the South Pacific are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia with chains of reef patches. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands. Examples include Banaba (formerly Ocean Island) and Makatea in the Tuamotu group of French Polynesia.[27][28] DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard

he volume of the Pacific Ocean, representing about 50.1 percent of the world's oceanic water, has been estimated at some 714 million cubic kilometers.[29] Surface water temperatures in the Pacific can vary from −1.4 °C (29.5 °F), the freezing point of sea water, in the poleward areas to about 30 °C (86 °F) HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard

near the equator.[30] Salinity also varies latitudinally reaching a maximum of 37 parts per thousand in the southeastern area. The water near the equator, which can have a salinity as low as 34 parts per thousand, HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year. The lowest counts of less than 32 parts per thousand are found in the far north as less evaporation of seawater takes place in these frigid areas.[31] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

The motion of Pacific waters is generally clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (the North Pacific gyre) and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15°N by the trade winds, turns north near thePhilippines to become the warm Japan or Kuroshio Current.[32] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

Turning eastward at about 45°N, the Kuroshio forks and some water moves northward as the Aleutian Current, while the rest turns southward to rejoin the North Equatorial Current.[33] The Aleutian Current branches as it approaches North America and forms the base of a counter-clockwise circulation in the Bering Sea. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Its southern arm becomes the chilled slow, south-flowing California Current.[34] The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50°S, HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

and joins the main westerly circulation of the Southern Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current. As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or Humboldt Current.[35] TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

The ocean was mapped by Abraham Ortelius; he called it Maris Pacifici because of Ferdinand Magellan, who sailed the Pacific during his circumnavigation from 1519 to 1522 and said that it was much more calm than the Atlantic.[38] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop Keyboard

The andesite line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. A petrologic boundary, separates the deeper, mafic igneous rock of the Central Pacific Basin from the partially submerged continental areas of felsicigneous rock on its margins.[39] SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc, along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan, the Mariana Islands, the Solomon Islands, and New Zealand's North Island.[40][23] ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard

The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Andes Cordillera along South America to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California. Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, New Guinea, and New Zealand lie outside the andesite line. SONY VGN-FE11M laptop keyboard

Within the closed loop of the andesite line are most of the deep troughs, submerged volcanic mountains, and oceanic volcanic islands that characterize the Pacific basin. Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4NX1 laptop keyboard

Outside the andesite line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the Pacific Ring of Fire is the world's foremost belt of explosivevolcanism.[22] The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

The Pacific Ocean is the only ocean which is almost totally bounded by subduction zones. Only the Antarctic and Australian coasts have no nearby subduction zones. Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

The weather systems in the Northern and Southern hemispheres generally mirror each other. The trade winds in the southern and eastern Pacific are remarkably steady while conditions in the North Pacific are far more varied with, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5107 laptop keyboard

for example, cold winter temperatures on the east coast of Russia contrasting with the milder weather off British Columbia during the winter months.[36] Cyclones are liable to form south ofMexico, striking Central America between June and October, as well as in southeast and east Asia from May to December, especially in August and September. In the western Pacific, HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

monsoons in the summer months contrast with dry winds in the winter which blow over the ocean from the Asian landmass. In the equatorial Pacific, El Niño, a band of warm ocean temperatures, affects weather conditions in the western Pacific. SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

In the far north, icing from October to May can present a hazard for shipping while persistent fog occurs from June to December.[37] The quantity of small plastic fragments floating in the north-east Pacific Ocean has increased a hundredfold over the past 40 years (2012).[46] HP Pavilion DV7-3067nr laptop keyboard

Marine pollution is a generic term for the harmful entry into the ocean of chemicals or particles. The main culprits are those using the rivers for disposing of their waste.[47] The rivers then empty into the Ocean, often also bringing chemicals used as fertilizers in agriculture. The excess of oxygen-depleting chemicals in the water leads to hypoxiaand the creation of a dead zone.[48] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has ended up floating in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway. Oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the centre of gyres and coastlines, frequently washing aground where it is known as beach litter.[47] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5216 laptop keyboard

is the most recent of the 50U.S. states (joined the Union on August 21, 1959), and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

Hawaii’s diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, (wind)surfers, biologists, HP Pavilion dv6-3142se laptop keyboard

and volcanologists alike. Due to its mid-Pacific location, Hawaii has many North American and Asian influences along with its own vibrant native culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents along with many visitors and U.S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-ST3712 laptop keyboard

The state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian Island chain, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles (2,400 km). At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight "main islands" are (from the northwest to southeast) Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

Maui and the island of Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest and is often called "The Big Island" to avoid confusing the name of the island with the name of the state as a whole. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii is the 8th smallest, the 11th least populous, but the 13th most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. Hawaii's ocean coastline is approximately 750 miles (1,210 km) long, which is fourth in the United States after those of Alaska, Florida and California. GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii is one of two states that do not observe daylight saving time, the other being Arizona. It is also one of two states that are not in the Contiguous United States; the other is Alaska, however, Hawaii is the only U.S. state not to be located in the Americas. Hawaii is also the only state with an Asian plurality. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard

A somewhat divisive political issue arose when the constitution of the state of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language: the exact spelling of the state's name, which in the islands' language is Hawaiʻi ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

(the ʻokina marking a Hawaiian consonant, a cut-off of breath before the final i). In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii to be the official state name. Official government publications, as well as department and office titles, HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

use the traditional Hawaiian spelling, with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length.[10] In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi, and some private entities, including a local newspaper, do use such symbols. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

The title of the state constitution is "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii". In Article XV, Section 1 uses "The State of Hawaii", Section 2 "the island of Oahu", Section 3 "The Hawaiian flag", and Section 5 specifies the state motto as "Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono". Since these documents predate the modern use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in Hawaiian orthography, the diacritics were not used.  HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii is the only state of the United States that is not geographically located in North America, grows coffee, is completely surrounded by water, is entirely an archipelago, has royal palaces, and does not have a straight line in its state boundary. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii’s tallest mountain, Mauna Kea, stands at 13,796 ft (4,205 m)[22] but is taller than Mount Everest if followed to the base of the mountain, which, lying at the floor of the Pacific Ocean, rises about 33,500 ft(10,200 m).[23] ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

The eight main islands, Hawaiʻi, Maui, Oʻahu, Kahoʻolawe, Lanaʻi, Molokaʻi, Kauaʻi and Niʻihau are accompanied by many others. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau that is often overlooked. HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

The Northwest Hawaiian Islands are a series of nine small, older masses northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure that are remnants of once much larger volcanic mountains. There are also more than 100 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, that are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin, totaling 130 or so across the archipelago.[24] ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

The Hawaiian islands were (and continue to be) continuously formed from volcanic activity initiated at an underseamagma source called a hotspot. As the tectonic plate beneath much of the Pacific Ocean moves to the northwest, the hot spot remains stationary, slowly creating new volcanoes. HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

Due to the hotspot’s location, the only active volcanoes are located around the southern half of the Big Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the Big Island’s coast. HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard

The last volcanic eruption outside the Big Island occurred at Haleakalā on Maui before the late 18th century, though it could have been hundreds of years earlier.[25] In 1790, Kīlauea exploded with the deadliest eruption (of the modern era) known to have occurred in what is now the United States.[26] As many as 5,405 warriors and their families marching on Kīlauea were killed by that eruption.[27] Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Volcanic activity and subsequent erosion have created impressive geological features. The Big Island has the third highest point among the world’s islands.[28] DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Slope instability of the volcanoes has generated damaging earthquakes with related tsunamis, particularly in 1868 and 1975.[29] Steep cliffs have been caused by catastrophic debris avalanches on the submerged flanks of ocean island volcanos.[30][31] DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

by the “3 W’s”: wind (carried through the air), waves (brought by ocean currents), and wings (birds, insects, and whatever they brought with them). This isolation, and the wide range of environments (extreme altitude, tropical climate) produced a vast array of endemic flora and fauna (see Endemism in the Hawaiian Islands). HP Pavilion dv6-2125ef laptop keyboard

Hawaii has more endangered species and has lost a higher percentage of its endemic species than any other U.S. state.[32] The relatively short time that the existing main islands of the archipelago have been above the surface of the ocean (less than 10 million years) is only a fraction of time span over which biological colonization and evolution have occurred in the archipelago. HP Pavilion dv6-2110ev laptop keyboard

The islands are well known for the environmental diversity that occurs on high mountains within a trade winds field. On a single island, the climate can differ around the coast from dry tropical (< 20 in or 500 mm annual rainfall) to wet tropical; SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard

and up the slopes from tropical rainforest (> 200 in or 5000 mm per year) through a temperate climate into alpine conditions of cold and dry climate. The rainy climate impacts soil development, which largely determines ground permeability, which affects the distribution of streams, wetlands, and wet places. HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard

Several areas in Hawaii are under the protection of the National Park Service.[33] Hawaii has two national parks:Haleakala National Park near Kula, on Maui, includes Haleakalā, the dormant volcano that formed east Maui; and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in the southeast region of the island of Hawaiʻi, which includes the active volcano Kīlauea and its various rift zones. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

There are three national historical parks: Kalaupapa National Historical Park in Kalaupapa, Molokaʻi, the site of a former Hansen’s disease colony; Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park in Kailua-Kona on the island of Hawaiʻi; LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

andPuʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park, an ancient place of refuge. Other areas under the control of the National Park Service include Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail on the Big Island and the USS Arizona Memorial atPearl Harbor on Oʻahu. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument was proclaimed by President George W. Bush on June 15, 2006. The monument covers roughly 140,000 square miles (360,000 km2) of reefs, atolls and shallow and deep sea out to 50 miles (80 km) offshore in the Pacific Ocean, larger than all of America’s National Parks combined.[34] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard

Hawaii’s climate is typical for the tropics, although temperatures and humidity tend to be a bit less extreme due to near-constant trade winds from the east. Summer highs are usually in the upper 80s °F, (around 31 °C) HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

during the day and mid 70s, (around 24 °C) at night. Winter day temperatures are usually in the low to mid 80s, (around 28 °C) and (at low elevation) seldom dipping below the mid 60s (18 °C) at night. ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard

Snow, not usually associated with the tropics, falls at 4,205 metres (13,796 ft) on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on the Big Island in some winter months. Snow rarely falls on Haleakala. Mount Waiʻaleʻale, on Kauaʻi, DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

has the second highest average annual rainfall on Earth, about 460 inches (11,684.0 mm). Most of Hawaii has only two seasons: the dry season from May to October, and the wet season from October to April.[35] TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

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