Wednesday, November 27, 2013

A recent study found that on average women

A recent study found that on average women that breastfed their infants had higher levels of education, were older, and were more likely to be white. The reasons for the persistently lower rates of breastfeeding among African American women are not well understood, but employment may play a role. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan African American women tend to return to work earlier after childbirth than white women, and they are more likely to work in environments that do not support breastfeeding. Although research has shown that returning to work is associated with early discontinuation of breastfeeding, a supportive work environment may make a difference in whether mothers are able to continue breastfeeding.[ Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan Deborah L. Dee's research found that women and children who qualify for WIC, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children were among those who were least likely to initiate breastfeeding. Income level can also contribute to women discontinuing breastfeeding early. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan More highly educated women are more likely to have access to information regarding difficulties with breastfeeding, allowing them to continue breastfeeding through difficulty rather than weaning early. Women in higher status jobs are more likely to have access to a lactation room and suffer less social stigma from having to breastfeed or express breastmilk at work. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan In addition, women who are unable to take an extended leave from work following the birth of their child are less likely to continue breastfeeding when they return to work. Low income women are more likely to have unintended pregnancies, and women whose pregnancies are unintended are less likely to breast feed their babies. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictions, not addressed by law in others, and a granted legal right in public and the workplace in yet others. Where it is a legal right, some mothers may nevertheless be reluctant tobreastfeed, and some people may object to the practice. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan There have been incidents of owners of premises, or people present, objecting to or forbidding breastfeeding. In some cases the mothers have left; in others, where a law guaranteeing the right to breastfeed has been broken, there has been legal action. Sometimes a company has apologised after the fact. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan In 2006, the editors of US Babytalk magazine received many complaints from readers after the cover of the August issue depicted a baby nursing at a bare breast. Even though the model's nipple was not shown, readers—many of them mothers—wrote that the image was "gross". HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan In a follow-up poll, one-quarter of 4,000 readers who responded thought the cover was negative.Babytalk editor Susan Kane commented, "There's a huge puritanical streak in Americans." In a 2004 survey conducted by theAmerican Dietetic Association, only 43% of the 3,719 respondents believed women ought to have the right to breast-feed in public. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan Negative perception of breastfeeding in social settings has led some women to feel discomfort when breastfeeding in public.[186] Even though many women are educated about the health benefits of breastfeeding, less than 25% choose to breastfeed their children. Western society tends to think of breasts in sexual terms instead of for their biological purpose, to bring nourishment to infants.[ HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan The misuse of the purpose of breasts has led many to have an adverse reaction to breastfeeding because people do not like to associate feeding an infant with sexual pleasure. The consequences of Western culture’s sexualization of breasts has led women feeling embarrassed to breast feed in public. This fear immobilizes women and keeps them restricted to their homes. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan ] Limitations on places in which women can breastfeed, as well as negative cultural connotations with breastfeeding may play a role in the amount of time a woman will breastfeed.[189] The end result is often that the woman may give up breastfeeding and switch to a bottle. When mothers lack support to breastfeed they are often destined to fail. SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan Research has shown that maternal guilt and shame is often associated with how a mother feeds their infant. This guilt and shame is a result of the inability to achieve the idealized notion of what it means to be a good mother. Mothers of both bottle and breast fed babies often feel shame and/or guilt for different reasons. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan Mothers who bottle feed their infants may feel that they are failures at breastfeeding.[190] On the other hand, mothers who breastfeed may feel exposed when breastfeeding in public places because of sexual connotations associated with breasts. They may also fear ridicule from emotional responses to an exposed breast. HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan Some may see breastfeeding as, ““indecent, disgusting, animalistic, sexual, and even possibly a perverse act.In response to scrutiny concerning public breastfeeding, advocates use nurse-ins to show others that there should be no shame in breastfeeding in public.However some advocates don’t fight the shame a woman can feel when she cannot breastfeed and must bottle-feed her baby. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan Shame should not be used as a tool to advocate breastfeeding, rather women should be able to individually define what a good mother is. Rather than focusing on the choice a woman has made on whether or not to breastfeed, it is suggested that there be a redirection with the emphasis of providing women with education on the benefits of breastfeeding as well as problem solving skills for women who may find it difficult. IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan The cultural context of Western society, does not always seem to advocate for breastfeeding in public.[186] According to one study published in the Journal of American Dietetic Association, over half the people who voted believed that women should not be allowed to breastfeed in public. SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan This study confirms previous studies that indicate that Americans do not want to see breasts in public places. Thus the stigma associated with breastfeeding in public can guide parents to seek an alternative to breastfeeding, even though it may not be as healthy for the child.[191] There used to be only two options for feeding infants: Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan breastfeeding or formula. With the introduction of formula as a scientifically proven way of nourishing infants, many people chose to feed their child formula over breast milk. Formula was popular for the convenience it offered by opening care opportunities to others.When examining the invention of formula from a bio cultural perspective, Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan one might also see the invention of formula as a way in which western culture adapted to negative cultural perceptions of breastfeeding in public.In response to negativism against breastfeeding, HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan the La Leche League began a breastfeeding advocacy movement that aimed to educate the public about the short and long term benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and child. With the introduction of the breast pump came a “third option,” that offered the benefits of mobility associated with formula feeding and the health benefits of breastfeeding. Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan This allowed care relationships to extend across further distances without compromising the health benefits of breast milk. Controversy has arisen over the marketing of breast milk vs. formula; particularly how it affects the education of mothers in third world countries and their comprehension (or lack thereof) of the health benefits of breastfeeding.Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan The most famous example, the NestlĂ© boycott, arose in the 1970s and continues to be supported by high-profile stars and international groups to this day. In 1981, the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted Resolution WHA34.22 which includes the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan Subsequently, the Innocenti Declaration was made by WHO and UNICEF policy-makers in August 1990 to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.[196] According to the WHO report published ahead of World Breastfeeding Week, 2013, only 37 countries (19 per cent) of 199 countries, subscribing to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, have passed laws incorporating all of the Code’s recommendations. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan The central concern about breastfeeding with HIV is whether or not it places the child at risk of becoming infected. Varying factors, such as the viral load in the mother’s milk, contribute to the difficulty in creating breastfeeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers It is also possible for the infant to be infected with HIV throughout the duration of the pregnancy or during the birthing process (intrapartum). HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan Breastfeeding with HIV guidelines established by the WHO suggest that HIV-infected mothers (particularly those in resource-poor countries) practice exclusive breastfeeding only, rather than mixed breastfeeding practices that involve other dietary supplements or fluids. Many studies have revealed the high benefit of exclusive breastfeeding to both mother and child, HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan documenting that exclusive breastfeeding for a period of 6 months significantly reduces transmission, provides the infant with a greater chance of survival in the first year of life, and helps the mother to recover from the negative health effects of birth much more quickly.[ Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan However, a recent study conducted by researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine suggests that women infected with HIV can, in fact, breastfeed without transmitting the virus to their children, because components in breast milk are understood as able to kill the virus.[ HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan High levels of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk (including eicosadienoic, arachidonic and gamma-linolenic acids) are associated with a reduced risk of child infection when nursed by HIV-positive mothers. Arachidonic acid and gamma-linolenic acid may also reduce viral shedding of HIV in breast milk.[203] HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan Despite these positive indicators, other studies have determined that bottle-fed babies of HIV-infected mothers approximately has a 19 percent chance of becoming infected, in comparison to breastfed babies who had an approximate 49 percent chance of infection. HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan Such a variance in findings makes it difficult to institute a proper set of guidelines for HIV-infected women in third-world or developing countries, where alternative forms of feeding are not always acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe (AFASS).Thus after much research, the benefits and/or consequences of breastfeeding with HIV are still currently under debate. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan The practice of breastfeeding for HIV positive mothers is a highly contested and controversial global public health concern. Programs for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and other international guidelines offer preventative interventions to address mother to child transmission(MTCT) of HIV in Third World countries.[ Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan PMTCT programs provide HIV-positive women with recommendations and services including antiretroviral therapy (ART), modifications in infant feeding practices (i.e., exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive replacement feeding), and counseling. Although prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs have been implemented across different regions, Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan their success in resource-constrained settings is still widely debated upon.[207] In 2008, the majority of sub-Saharan Africa as a whole had an estimate of 430,000 HIV infections among children under the age of 15. HIV-positive women’s lack of participation and adherence to PMTCT services and infant feeding guidelines has made the success of these policies difficult, HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan despite the knowledge and technology that has been dedicated to them.[207] Many women fear knowing their HIV status. Generally speaking, HIV-positive mothers lack support, especially from males, thus resulting in their stigmatization and exclusion by members of the community.[ TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan It is because of this that most women end up losing contact with development programs, which end soon after the mother delivers.[207] The discontinuation of these programs makes a knowledge and understanding of different feeding options difficult for these mothers, because these programs are not there to present them with the necessary information. HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan Access to available resources for the prevention of MTCT of HIV varies across different cultural regions. “MTCT of HIV has been virtually eliminated in well-resourced settings such as the United States and Europe”.[150] Available medical and therapeutic resources in developed countries can include drugs for HIV-positive mothers during pregnancy and labour, Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan cesarean delivery to reduce the infant’s exposure to infection; and modifications in infant feeding practices.In third world settings, medical resources and technology can be very hard to find and can serve as a financial burden to HIV-positive mothers. HIV-infected mothers refer to counselors for expert knowledge and recommendations on infant feeding and health.DELL R859C CPU Fan Treatment amenities in resource-constrained settings are also available to HIV-positive mothers in the form of antiretroviral therapy (ART) which is one resource that has contributed to the elimination of MTCT of HIV in first world countries. In order to have access to resources, HIV-positive mothers must be able maintain follow up appointments regularly, Toshiba Satellite A105-S2101 CPU Fan however, this is problematic in resource-limited settings due to weak infrastructure in health care systems in countries such as India,Tanzania and Nigeria.This can also serve as a dilemma for HIV-positive mothers because although limited resources are available to them,financial constraint can prevent women from accessing available treatments.SONY Vaio VGN-FW140E CPU Fan This can influence HIV-positive mother’s decision to rely solely on breastfeeding as a primary feeding option due to financial instability.Anthropological research demonstrates that in contexts where breastfeeding is essential to infant survival, such as in resource poor settings, PMTCT infant feeding guidelines challenge notions of motherhood and women’s decision making power over infant care, ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan and colour HIV positive mothers’ infant feeding experiences. In eastern Africa, infant mortality is high and breastfeeding is vital for infant survival. Here, motherhood is defined as the responsibility for ensuring the child’s proper growth and health. Breastfeeding is also seen as a cultural practice that helps create a social bond between mother and child.[ SONY Vaio VPC-EB4S1E/WI CPU Fan However, there is a disjuncture between PMTCT policy’s infant feeding guideline and what is considered to be good mothering behavior. The PMTCT policy promotes replacement feeding because it is believed to prevent the risk of transmission of HIV. However, adhering to such guidelines are difficult for mothers in resource-limited settings who believe that not breastfeeding one’s child would be harmful to their health and survival, HP Pavilion dv9580ed CPU Fan as well as threaten the “development of close bodily and emotional bonds between mother and child”.As such, not breastfeeding, for HIV-positive women, is perceived as failing to be a good mother.Thus, PMTCT programs impact HIV-positive women’s agency and decision-making in infant care, as well as challenge their cultural conceptions of good motherhood. Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5934 CPU Fan In an effort to further refine the United Nations guideline for optimal infant feeding options for HIV-infected mothers, the World Health Organization (WHO) held a three-day convention in Geneva in 2006 to review new evidence that had been established since they last established a guideline in 2000. SONY Vaio VGN-CR31S/P CPU Fan Participants included UN agencies, representative from nongovernmental organizations, researchers, infant feeding experts, and WHO headquarters departments. The convention concluded with the following recommendations: If replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable and safe, HIV-infected mothers are recommended to use replacement feeding. HP Pavilion dv5-1210et CPU Fan Otherwise, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. At six months, if replacement feeding is still not available, HIV-infected mothers are encouraged to slowly introduce food while continuing breastfeeding. Those with HIV-infected infants are recommended to continue breastfeeding even after 6 months. SONY Vaio VGN-FW465J/B CPU Fan In a 2010 update the WHO stated that significant programmatic experience and research evidence regarding HIV and infant feeding had accumulated since WHO's recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV were last revised in 2006. In particular, HP Envy 15 CPU Fan evidence has been reported that antiretroviral (ARV) interventions to either the HIV-infected mother or HIV-exposed infant can significantly reduce the risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. This evidence has major implications for how women living with HIV might feed their infants, and how health workers should counsel these mothers. HP Pavilion dv7-1190er CPU Fan Together, breastfeeding and ARV intervention have the potential to significantly improve infants' chances of surviving while remaining HIV uninfected. While the 2010 recommendations are generally consistent with the previous guidance, they recognize the important impact of ARVs during the breastfeeding period, Toshiba Satellite A105-S4074 CPU Fan and recommend that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice, i.e. breastfeeding with an ARV intervention to reduce transmission or avoidance of all breastfeeding, should be promoted and supported by their Maternal and Child Health services.  IBM MCF-208AM05-1 CPU Fan This differs from the previous recommendations in which health workers were expected to individually counsel all HIV-infected mothers about the various infant feeding options, and it was then for mothers to decide between them. Where national authorities promote breastfeeding and ARVs, IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan  HP GB0507PGV1-A CPU Fan mothers known to be HIV-infected are now recommended to breastfeed their infants until at least 12 months of age. The recommendation that replacement feeding should not be used unless it is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe remains. HP Pavilion dv6-3385la CPU Fan In a review article published in the journal Pediatrics, data from 2001 to 2012 were analyzed to discern any safety issue for mothers taking prescription drugswhile breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) advises that mothers can take most prescription drugs but should avoid certain painkillers,psychiatric drugs and herbal supplements. HP Pavilion tx2510us  CPU  Fan The health benefits of mother taking drugs and breastfeeding should be weighed against the risk of drug exposure to the infant. The report recommends consulting the NIH database 'LactMed' on the most up-to-date information on drugs and breastfeeding. HP G62-b55EV CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6-2145sf CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv7-1120ew CPU Fan

No comments:

Post a Comment