Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Frequent and exclusive breastfeeding

Frequent and exclusive breastfeeding usually delays the return of fertility through lactational amenorrhea, though breastfeeding is an imperfect means of birth control. During breastfeeding beneficial hormonesare released into the mother's body[26] and the maternal bond can be strengthened.[ Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan Breastfeeding is possible throughout pregnancy, but generally milk production will be reduced at some point.[69] Children who are not breastfed are almost six times more likely to die by the age of one month than children who receive at least some breastmilk. According to some authorities, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that early skin-to-skin contact DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan (also called kangaroo care) of mother and baby stimulates breast feeding behavior in the baby.[71] Newborn infants who are immediately placed on their mother’s skin have a natural instinct to latch on to the breast and start nursing, typically within one hour of being born. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan It is thought that immediate skin-to-skin contact provides a form of imprinting that makes subsequent feeding significantly easier. The World Health Organization reports that in addition to more successful breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby immediately after delivery also reduces crying, HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan improves mother to infant interaction, and keeps baby warm. According to studies quoted by UNICEF, babies have been observed to naturally follow a unique process which leads to a first breastfeed. After birth, babies who are placed skin to skin on their mothers chest will: Initially babies cry briefly – a very distinctive birth cry. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan Then they will enter a stage of relaxation, recovering from the birth Then the baby will start to wake up Then begin to move, initially little movements, perhaps of the arms, shoulders and head As these movements increase he will actually start to crawl towards the breast Once he has found the breast and therefore his food source, he will tend to rest for a little while. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan Often this can be mistaken as the baby is not hungry or wanting to feed However after his rest he will start to familiarise himself with the breast, perhaps by nuzzling, smelling and licking before he finally attaches Once he has suckled for a period of time, he will come off the breast and fall asleep. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan Providing that there are no interruptions, all babies are said to follow this process and it is suggested that trying to rush the process or interruptions such as removing the baby to weigh him/her is counter-productive and may lead to problems at subsequent breastfeeds.[72] Hormones released during breastfeeding help to strengthen the maternal bond.[19] Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan Teaching partners how to manage common difficulties is associated with higher breastfeeding rates.[73] Support for a mother while breastfeeding can assist in familial bonds and help build a paternal bond between father and child.[74] If the mother is away, an alternative caregiver may be able to feed the baby with breast milk expressed with a breast pump. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan Breastfeeding releases oxytocin and prolactin, hormones that relax the mother and make her feel more nurturing toward her baby.[75] This hormone release can help to enable sleep even where a mother may otherwise be having difficulty sleeping. Breastfeeding soon after giving birth increases the mother's oxytocin levels, making her uterus contract more quickly and reducing bleeding. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan Pitocin, a synthetic hormone used to make the uterus contract during and after labour, is structurally modelled on oxytocin. Syntocinon, another synthetic oxytocic, is commonly used in Australia and the UK rather than Pitocin. As the fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, extended breastfeeding—at least 6 months—can help mothers lose weight.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan However, weight loss is highly variable among lactating women; monitoring the diet and increasing the amount/intensity of exercise are more reliable ways of losing weight.[80] The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "The effect of breastfeeding in mothers on return-to-pre-pregnancy weight was negligible, and the effect of breastfeeding on postpartum weight loss was unclear." Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan Dramatic changes occur in a pregnant woman’s metabolism and body composition as she accommodates the demands of providing for the nutritional needs of the growing fetus, and metabolizing for two. In anticipation of lactation, the mother accumulates some stores of visceral fat, but most of it is stored as subcutaneous fat in the thighs, arms, buttocks, and breasts.[ HP 646578-001 CPU Fan This shift in fat content leads to increased insulin production, insulin resistance, and circulating lipid levels in the mother. Studies have indicated that gestational weight gain (GWG) may contribute to complications during labor and delivery and it is the most reliable factor in predicting postpartum weight retention (PPWR).[82] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan In general, the more weight that women put on during pregnancy, the more weight that they retain afterward. Interventions to restrain GWG in the United States and elsewhere have had mixed results in reducing PPWR.[83] The recent recognition of PPWR’s influence on later chronic diseases has brought a surge in data analysis. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan In fact, the proportion of US women who gain weight excessively during pregnancy is growing. In 2005, 20.6% gained 18.2 kg (40 lb), the upper limit recommended by the Institute of Medicine.[84] Recommended weight gains during pregnancy vary according to maternal baseline characteristics.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan The Institute of Medicine has established guidelines where women who are underweight (BMI less than 18.5) are encouraged to gain 13 to 18 kg; women who are at normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9) are encouraged to gain 11–16 kg; those who are overweight (BMI 25-29.9) are suggested to gain 7–11 kg; HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan and those who are obese I (BMI 30-34.9) are recommended to gain 5–9 kg.[85] These recommendations are variable and are meant to inform an obstetrician in caring for a pregnant woman. Extreme gains in visceral fat can put women at higher risk of cardiovascular and glycemic disorders later in life. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan After birth, the fat stores created during pregnancy are primed to be metabolized through lactation. Several investigators have explored the relation between duration of lactation and postpartum weight change, and found a variety of outcomes. Overall, it has been observed that prolonged exclusivity of breastfeeding is associated HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan with increased weight loss when controlling for gestational weight gain and postpartum caloric intake and expenditure.[86] Dietary intake and energy expenditure affect how much weight women lose with lactation. When nutrition is readily available, women compensate for increased energy demands by increasing intake and decreasing energy expenditure, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan rather than mobilizing fat stores. Fat mobilization appears to increase after the first 3 months postpartum, reflecting changes in the hormonal effects of lactation on maternal appetite as frequency of infant feeds decreases.[87] Some findings suggest that formula-feeding mothers during the first two months postpartum consume 600 to 800 fewer calories than breast-feeding mothers and lost substantially more weight. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan From 3 to 6 months post-partum, however, weight loss among breast-feeding women increased substantially. These results suggest that in the early postpartum period, well-nourished women in developed nations tend to increase energy intake and/or decrease physical activity to meet the energy demands of lactation, whereas beyond 3 months, HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan lactating women are more likely to mobilize fat stores. Longitudinal studies using skinfold thickness and MRI scanning of adipose tissue during pregnancy and lactation consistently show fat accumulation in the thigh and buttocks regions during pregnancy, with mobilization from these areas postpartum. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan These studies have indicated that lactation is associated with reduction in subcutaneous fat levels and overall body weight. Recent data suggests that lactation is associated with a reduced risk in chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and heart disease.[ IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan The long-term effects of lactation on body composition vary, and seem to be influenced by socioeconomic factors.[92] Studies have consistently indicated that lactation helps prepare the mother’s body for subsequent pregnancies and reduces complications in later periods of gestation and birth. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan Further research is needed to examine the long-term effects of lactation on maternal body composition and risk for chronic disease. Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. A breastfeeding woman may not ovulate, or have regular periods, during the entire lactation period. SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan The period in which ovulation is absent differs for each woman. This lactational amenorrhea has been used as an imperfect form of natural contraception, with greater than 98% effectiveness during the first six months after birth if specific nursing behaviors are followed. It is possible for women to ovulate within two months after birth while fully breastfeeding and get pregnant again. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan The American Academy of Pediatrics states that breast feeding also has economic health benefits because breastfeeding results in reduced health care costs. The significantly lower incidence of illness in the breastfed infant also allows the parents more time for attention to siblings and other family duties and reduces parental absence from work and lost income. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan Using figures for the year 1993, it was estimated that the cost of purchasing infant formula for the first year after birth was $855. During the first 6 weeks of lactation, maternal caloric intake is no greater for the breastfeeding mother than for the nonlactating mother. After that period, food and fluid intakes are greater, Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan but the cost of the increased caloric intake is about half the cost of purchasing formula, resulting in a saving of about $400.There are many books and videos to advise mothers about breastfeeding. Lactation consultants in hospitals or private practice, and volunteer organizations of breastfeeding mothers such as La Leche League International also provide advice and support. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan In the half hour after birth, the baby's suckling reflex is strongest, and the baby is more alert, so it is the ideal time to start breastfeeding.[105] Breastfeeding also releases hormones that contract the uterus to reduce post-partum bleeding.[106]Early breastfeeding is associated with fewer nighttime feeding problems.[107] IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan A Cochrane review found that early skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby (placing the baby at the mother's breast before dressing the baby) reduces crying, improves mother-baby interaction, keeps the baby warmer, and helps women breastfeed successfully and for a longer period of time. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan Feeding a baby "on demand" (sometimes referred to as "on cue"), means feeding when the baby shows signs of hunger. Newborn babies usually express demand for feeding every 1 to 3 hours per 24 hours (resulting in 8-12 times in 24 hours) for the first two to four weeks. "Experienced breastfeeding mothers learn that the sucking patterns and needs of babies vary. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan While some infants' sucking needs are met primarily during feedings, other babies may need additional sucking at the breast soon after a feeding even though they are not really hungry. Babies may also nurse when they are lonely, frightened or in pain."[110] "Comforting and meeting sucking needs at the breast is nature's original design. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan Pacifiers (dummies, soothers) are a substitute for the mother when she cannot be available. Other reasons to pacify a baby primarily at the breast include superior oral-facial development, prolonged lactational amenorrhea, avoidance of nipple confusion, and stimulation of an adequate milk supply to ensure higher rates of breastfeeding success." ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan Most US states now have laws that allow a mother to breastfeed her baby anywhere she is allowed to be. In hospitals, rooming-in care permits the baby to stay with the mother and improves the ease of breastfeeding. Some commercial establishments provide breastfeeding rooms, although laws generally specify that mothers may breastfeed anywhere, without requiring them to go to a special area. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan Correct positioning and technique for latching on are necessary to prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to obtain enough milk.The "rooting reflex" is the baby's natural tendency to turn towards the breast with the mouth open wide; mothers sometimes make use of this by gently stroking the baby's cheek or lips with their nipple to induce the baby to move into position for a breastfeeding session, ASUS F80S CPU Fan then quickly moving the baby onto the breast while its mouth is wide open.To prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to get enough milk, a large part of the breast and areola need to enter the baby's mouth.Failure to latch on is one of the main reasons for ineffective feeding and can lead to infant health concerns. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan A 2006 study found that inadequate parental education, incorrect breastfeeding techniques, or both were associated with higher rates of preventable hospital re-admissions of newborns. Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as "an infant's consumption of human milk with no supplementation of any type IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan (no water, no juice, no nonhuman milk, and no foods) except for vitamins, minerals, and medications."[17] National and international guidelines recommend that all infants be breastfed exclusively for the first six months of life. Breastfeeding may continue with the addition of appropriate foods, for two years or more. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan Exclusive breastfeeding has dramatically reduced infant deaths in developing countries by reducing diarrhea and infectious diseases. It has also been shown to reduce HIV transmission from mother to child, compared to mixed feeding. While it can be hard to measure how much food a breastfed baby consumes, babies normally feed to meet their own requirements.[ IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan Babies that fail to eat enough may exhibit symptoms of failure to thrive. The La Leche League says that their most often asked question is, "How can I tell if my baby is getting enough milk?" They advise that for the first few days while the baby is receiving mostly colostrum only one or two wet diapers per day is normal. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan Once the mother's milk comes in, usually on the third or fourth day, the baby should begin to have 6-8 wet cloth diapers (5-6 wet disposable diapers) per day. In addition, most young babies will have at least two to five bowel movements every 24 hours for the first several months. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan When direct breastfeeding is not possible, a mother can express (artificially remove and store) her milk. With manual massage or by using a breast pump, a woman can express her milk and store it. It can be stored in freezer storage bags and containers made specifically for breastmilk, a supplemental nursing system, or a bottle ready for use. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan Breast milk may be kept at room temperature for up to six hours, refrigerated for up to eight days or frozen for up to six to twelve months.[123] Research suggests that the antioxidant activity in expressed breast milk decreases over time but it still remains at higher levels than in infant formula.[124] IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan Expressing breast milk can maintain a mother's milk supply when she and her child are apart. If a sick baby is unable to feed, expressed milk can be fed through a nasogastric tube. Expressed milk can also be used when a mother is having trouble breastfeeding. "Exclusively expressing", "exclusively pumping", ASUS A8H CPU Fan and "EPing" are terms for a mother who feeds her baby exclusively her breastmilk while not physically breastfeeding. This may arise because her baby is unable or unwilling to latch on to the breast. With good pumping habits, particularly in the first 12 weeks when the milk supply is being established, SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan it is possible to produce enough milk to feed the baby for as long as the mother wishes. It is generally advised to delay using a bottle to feed expressed breast milk until the baby is 4–6 weeks old and is good at sucking directly from the breast.[125] As sucking from a bottle takes less effort, babies can lose their desire to suck from the breast. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan This is called nursing strike or nipple confusion. To avoid this when feeding expressed breast milk (EBM) before 4–6 weeks of age, it is recommended that breast milk be given by other means such as feeding spoons or feeding cups. Also, EBM should be given by someone other than the breastfeeding mother (or wet nurse), APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan so that the baby can learn to associate direct feeding with the mother (or wet nurse) and associate bottle feeding with other people. With the improvements in breast pumps, many women are able to return to work while exclusively feeding their infants breast milk because of their ability to express milk at work. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan Women can also leave their infants in the care of others for vacation or other extended trips, while maintaining a supply of breast milk. This can be very convenient to the mother.[126] Some women donate their expressed breast milk (EBM) to others, either directly or through a milk bank. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan Though historically the use of wet nurses was common, some women dislike the idea of feeding their own child with another woman's milk; others appreciate being able to give their baby the benefits of breast milk. Feeding expressed breast milk—either from donors or the baby's own mother—is the feeding method of choice for premature babies. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

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