Thursday, November 14, 2013

According to the CSIRO and Garnaut Climate Change Review

According to the CSIRO and Garnaut Climate Change Review, climate change is expected to have numerous adverse effects on many species, regions, activities and much infrastructure and areas of the economy and public health in Australia. The Stern Report and Garnaut Review on balance expect these to outweigh the costs of mitigation. [34] DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan Sustained climate change could have drastic effects on the ecosystems of Australia. For example, rising ocean temperatures and continual erosion of the coasts from higher water levels will cause further bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef. Beyond that, ASUS F80S CPU Fan Australia’s climate will become even harsher, with more powerful tropical cyclones and longer droughts.The impacts of climate change will vary significantly across Australia. The Australian Government appointed Climate Commission have prepared summary reports on the likely impacts of climate change for regions across Australia, HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan including: Queensland, NSW, Victoria and Tasmania. According to the climate commission report in 2013 the extreme heatwaves, flooding and bush fires striking Australia have been intensified by climate change and will get worse in future in terms of their impacts on people, IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan property, communities and the environment. The summer of 2012/2013 included the hottest summer, hottest month and hottest day on record. The cost of the 2009 bushfires in Victoria was estimated at A$4.4bn (£3bn) and the Queensland floods of 2010/2011 cost over A$5bn. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan The Australian Government released a detailed report on the impacts of climate change on coastal areas of Australia, finding that up to 247,600 houses are at risk from flooding from a sea-level rise of 1.1 metres. There were 39,000 buildings located within 110 metres of 'soft' erodible shorelines, at risk from accelerated erosion due to sea -level rise. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan In 2008 the Treasurer and the Minister for Climate Change and Water released a report that concluded the economy will grow with an emissions trading scheme in place.[41] A report released in October 2009 by the Standing Committee on Climate Change, Water, Environment and the Arts, studying the effects of a 1m sea level rise, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan quite possible within the next 30–60 years, concluded that around 700,000 properties around Australia, including 80,000 buildings, would be inundated, the collective value of these properties is estimated at $150billion. In June 2008 it became known that an expert panel had warned of long term, DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan maybe irreversible, severe ecological damage for the whole Murray-Darling basin if it did not receive sufficient water by October of that year.[43] Water restrictions are currently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages resulting from drought.[44] HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan In 2004 paleontologist Tim Flannery predicted that unless it made drastic changes the city of Perth, Western Australia, could become the world’s first ghost metropolis - an abandoned city with no more water to sustain its population. One of Australia's first national attempt to reduce emissions was the voluntary-based IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan initiative called the Greenhouse Challenge Program which began in 1995.[46]A collection of measures which focused on reducing the environmental impacts of the energy sector were released by Prime Minister John Howard on 20 November 1997 in a policy statement called Safeguarding Our Future: ASUS A8H CPU Fan Australia's Response to Climate Change.[47] One measure was the establishment of the Australian Greenhouse Office, which was set up as the world's first dedicated greenhouse office in April 1998.[48] After contributing to the development of, then signing but not ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan action to address climate change was coordinated through the Australian Greenhouse Office. The Australian Greenhouse Office released the National Greenhouse Strategy in 1998. The report recognised climate change was of global significance and that Australia had an international obligation to address the problem. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan In 2000 the Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Arts References Committee conducted an inquiry that produced The Heat is On: Australia's Greenhouse Future. In 1998 the Australian Government, under Prime Minister John Howard, APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan established the Australian Greenhouse Office, which was then the world's first government agency dedicated to cutting greenhouse gas emissions.[50] Currently, the new Department of Climate Change under Minister Penny Wong is coordinating and leading climate policy in the Australian Government and aimed to have a national emissions trading scheme operating by 2010. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan However, on 27 April 2010, the Prime Minister Kevin Rudd announced that the Government has decided to delay the implementation of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) until the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (ending in 2012).[51] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan The Government cited the lack of bipartisan support for the CPRS and slow international progress on climate action as the reasons for the decision.[52] The delay of the implementation of the CPRS was strongly criticised by the Federal Opposition[53] and by community and grassroots action groups such asGetUp.[54] Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan The new government has committed to reducing Australia's greenhouse gas emissions by 60% by 2050, based on year 2000 levels but is awaiting a report from Professor Ross Garnaut, the Garnaut Climate Change Review, in mid-2008 before setting interim emission reduction targets for 2020.[dated info] SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan Climate change is on the agenda for most environmental and social justice non-government organisations (NGOs) in Australia. There has also been significant action at a State Government level, although the Federal government was slow to act under the former prime minister, John Howard[HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan To reduce Australia's carbon emissions, the government of Julia Gillard introduced a carbon tax on 1 July 2012. It requires large businesses, defined as those emitting over 250,000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent annually, to purchase emissions permits. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan The state of Victoria, in particular, has been proactive in pursuing reductions in GHG through a range of initiatives. Other states have also taken a more proactive stance than the federal government. One such initiative undertaken by the Victorian Government is the Greenhouse Challenge for Energy Policy package, HP G56-126NR CPU Fan which aims to reduce Victorian emissions through a mandated renewable energy target. Initially, it aimed to have a 10 per cent share of Victoria’s energy consumption being produced by renewable technologies by 2010, with 1000 MWh being produced by wind energy by 2006; this target was not met. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan The government recently legislated to ensure that by 2016 electricity retailers in Victoria purchase 10 per cent of their energy from renewables. The State Government also made an election promise, at the 2006 election, to increase this to 20 per cent by 2020. By providing a market incentive for the development of renewables, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan the government helps foster the development of the renewable energy sector. The Australian Youth Climate Coalition (AYCC) was founded in November 2006 by over 35 youth organisations including the Australian Student Environment Network, GetUp!, the United Nations Youth Association (UNYA) and OzGreen. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan The founding summit involved 65 young people aged 15–30 representing 30 different youth and youth-friendly organisations. The AYCC is a non-partisan, non-profit coalition with the aim of informing, inspiring and mobilising an entire generation in the struggle for climate justice and a clean energy future. Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan The coalition emerged to hold those in power to account by challenging the acutely poor leadership shown by the Australian government and the private sector to stop climate change. In February 2007, the AYCC organised its official launch where AYCC members delivered their declaration on climate change to members of the Australian Parliament around the country. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan Australian Student Environment Network (ASEN) is a non-profit, grassroots network of student activists from universities, TAFEs and secondary schools across Australia. The network aims to create a generation of change-agents actively working to achieve environmental and social justice within the Australian and world context. ASUS G2P CPU Fan The network has a strong focus on equipping young people with organising and facilitation skills and provides first-hand campaigning experience in environmental advocacy and grassroots organising. Annually, the ASEN summer training camp brings together students for one week of facilitated skill sharing, workshopping, campaign planning and strategising. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan ASEN has multiple campaign foci including climate change, coal mining, green jobs, campus sustainability (energy/emissions & recycled paper), nuclear power, Gold and Uranium mining and the genocide of Indigenous peoples. In addition, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan the network builds and lives-out alternative ideas and lifestyles through community projects such as Co-operatives (food, housing and transport), on-campus permaculture gardens and by investing in community supported agriculture. The AYCC supports numerous projects by harnessing the knowledge, skills and experience of its coalition member groups. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan In August 2007, the AYCC launched their federal election campaign "Adopt a Politician" providing young voters and non-voters a platform on which to engage with their local community on the issue and pressure their federal candidates to save their future by committing to better policies. Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan In October 2007, the AYCC and ASEN organised the largest gathering of young climate activists from around the country at the conference "Switched On" in the Blue Mountains west of Sydney. The conferenced aimed to facilitate critical thinking on climate change and its solutions, Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan share knowledge and skills for organising around climate change and provide support and networking opportunities for the growing youth climate movement in Australia. In November 2007, youth delegates from the AYCC attended the Kyoto negotiations in Bali where they collaborated with other national youth networks and young climate HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan activists from around the world.SYCAN-the Sydney Youth Climate Action Network was founded at OzGreen's Youth Leading Australia Congress in 2009. SYCAN is working in local communities to reduce emissions through education and practical solutions. SYCAN is a non-profit, non-partisan group of youth volunteers. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan SYCAN as of January 2011 currently has two branches (Northern Beaches and Inner-West areas). Australia's National Reserve System (NRS) is a network of around 9,400 Commonwealth plus state and territoryprotected areas which,[1] in combination, on a national scale, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan are hoped to enable more than 89 million hectares (greater than 12% of the continent's) unique biodiversity and most significant ecological landscapes to be protected and preserved for future generations.The aim of the NRS is protect the diversity of all native landscapes, floraand fauna across Australia through strategic habitat protection. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan As part of the National Reserve System Cooperative Program, the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australiaframework was developed as a planning tool to assist in identifying areas of priority. The move by the Australian Government to establish this National Reserve System SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan was triggered by the internationalConvention on Biological Diversity, as part of the nation's commitment to fulfilling the objectives of that convention.[4] In particular, after signing and ratifying the convention in 1992 the then Prime Minister announced. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan "The establishment of a comprehensive system of protected areas is vital if we are to retain our status as a region of megadiversity. Besides being ecologically viable these areas must represent the full range of ecosystems. The Government is committed to the development of a national comprehensive system of parks and reserves. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan This will be achieved in cooperation with States and Territories." Within the first 4 years (1992–1996) $11.2 million was spent establishing the system and, with the cooperation and agreement of the Australian States and territories 5,600 properties (covering almost 60 million hectares) Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan were included within the system and a new Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) program was initiated to include some of the most valuable and rare ecological landscapes on Indigenous Australian owned lands.[4] 17 Indigenous Protected Area were declared by 2003 which significantly added to the NRS.[5] Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan Within the next 10 years (1996–2007), with further substantial investment (through a National Heritage Trust) an additional 30 million hectares were added to the National Reserve System, two thirds of which were Indigenous Protected Areas. During this time, starting in 1999, HP 535441-001 CPU Fan Tasmania took a lead investing in partnerships to create protected areas on other private lands; and by 2005 all the states and territories re-affirmed their joint commitment to what was to be described as a national 'flagship in biodiversity conservation'.[4] Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan The National Reserve System continues to be an Australian Government priority, with continuing funding "target[ing] areas with low levels of protection, including the sub-tropical savanna from Cape York to the Kimberley, the Mitchell grass country of north-west Queensland and arid central Australia;[4] HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan continuing investment in indigenous protected areas;[4] plus a new National Reserve System strategy identifying priorities and actions to be taken over the next 20 years. Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it covers a diverse range of habitats, from alpine heaths to tropicalrainforests, and is recognized as a megadiverse country. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan Because of the great age and consequent low levels of fertility of the continent, its extremely variable weather patterns, and its long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique and diverse. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.[3] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced plant and animal species. The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999is a legal framework for the protection of threatened species. Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan Numerous protected areas have been created under the nationalBiodiversity Action Plan to protect and preserve unique ecosystems; 65 wetlands are listed under the Ramsar Convention, and 16 World Heritage Sites have been established. Australia was ranked 13th in the world on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index.[4] HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan Most Australian woody plant species are evergreen and many are adapted to fire and drought, including many eucalyptus andacacias. Australia has a rich variety of endemic legume species that thrive in nutrient-poor soils because of their symbiosis with Rhizobia bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan Well-known Australian fauna include monotremes (the platypus and echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wombat; and birds such as the emu and kookaburra. The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE.[5] HP G60-230us CPU Fan Many plant and animal species became extinct soon after first human settlement, including the Australian megafauna; others have become extinct since European settlement, among them theThylacine. The fauna of Australia consists of a huge variety of animals; some 83% of mammals, HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan 89% of reptiles, 90% of fish and insects and 93% of amphibians that inhabit the continent are endemic to Australia.[2] This high level of endemism can be attributed to the continent's long geographic isolation, tectonic stability, and the effects of an unusual pattern of climate change on the soil and flora over geological time. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan A unique feature of Australia's fauna is the relative scarcity of native placental mammals. Consequently the marsupials—a group of mammals that raise their young in a pouch, including the macropods, possums anddasyuromorphs—occupy many of the ecological niches placental animals occupy elsewhere in the world. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan Australia is home to two of the 5 known extant species of monotremes and has numerous venomous species, which include the Platypus, spiders, scorpions,octopus, jellyfish, molluscs, stonefish, and stingrays. Uniquely, Australia has more venomous than non-venomous species ofsnakes. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan The settlement of Australia by Indigenous Australians between 48,000 and 70,000 years ago [3] (research in 2011 using DNA suggesting an arrival around 50,000 years ago),[4] and by Europeans from 1788, has significantly affected the fauna. Hunting, the introduction of non-native species, HP G62-110SO CPU Fan and land-management practices involving the modification or destruction of habitats have led to numerous extinctions. Some examples include the Paradise Parrot, Pig-footed bandicoot and the Broad-faced Potoroo. Unsustainable land use still threatens the survival of many species. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan To target threats to the survival of its fauna, Australia has passed wide-ranging federal and state legislation and established numerous protected areas. Both geologic and climatic events helped to make Australia's fauna unique.[5] Australia was once part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana,[6] which also included South America, Africa, India and Antarctica. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan Gondwana began to break up 140 million years ago (MYA); 50 MYA Australia separated from Antarctica and was relatively isolated until the collision of the Indo-Australian Plate with Asia in the Miocene era 5.3 MYA. The establishment and evolution of the present-day fauna was apparently shaped by the unique climate and the geology of the continent. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan As Australia drifted, it was, to some extent, isolated from the effects of global climate change. The unique fauna that originated in Gondwana, such as the marsupials, survived and adapted in Australia.[ After the Miocene, fauna of Asian origin were able to establish themselves in Australia. Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan The Wallace Line—the hypothetical line separating the zoogeographical regions of Asia and Australasia—marks the tectonic boundary between theEurasian and Indo-Australian plates. This continental boundary prevented the formation of land bridges and resulted in a distinct zoological distribution, Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan with limited overlap, of most Asian and Australian fauna, with the exception of birds. Following the emergence of the circumpolar current in the mid-Oligocene era (some 15 MYA), the Australian climate became increasingly arid, giving rise to a diverse group of arid-specialised organisms, Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan just as the wet tropical and seasonally wet areas gave rise to their own uniquely adapted species.Australia has a rich mammalian fossil history, as well as a variety of extant mammalian species, dominated by the marsupials.[8] The fossil record shows that monotremes have been present in Australia since the Early Cretaceous 145–99 MYA,[9] Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan and that marsupials and placental mammals date from the Eocene 56–34 MYA,[10] when modern mammals first appeared in the fossil record. Although marsupials and placental mammals did coexist in Australia in the Eocene, only marsupials have survived to the present. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan The placental mammals made their reappearance in Australia in the Miocene, when Australia moved closer to Indonesia, and bats and rodents started to appear reliably in the fossil record.[ The marsupials evolved to fill specific ecological niches, and in many cases they are physically similar to the placental mammals in Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan Eurasiaand North America that occupy similar niches, a phenomenon known as convergent evolution.[11] For example, the top predator in Australia, the Tasmanian Tiger,[7] bore a striking resemblance to canids such as the Gray Wolf;[ gliding possums and flying squirrels have similar adaptations enabling their arboreal lifestyle;[ SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan and the Numbat andanteaters are both digging insectivores.[12] For the most part, mammals are not a highly visible part of the faunal landscape, as most species are nocturnal and many arboreal. Furthermore, there are few extant large ground-dwelling species. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan Two of the five living species of monotreme occur in Australia: the Platypus and the Short-beaked Echidna.[14] The monotremes differ from other mammals in their methods of reproduction; in particular, they lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young.[14] HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan The Platypus—a venomous, egg-laying, duck-billed amphibious mammal—is considered to be one of the strangest creatures in the animal kingdom. When it was first presented by Joseph Banks to English naturalists it was thought to be so strange that it was a cleverly created hoax.[ HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan The Short-beaked Echidna is similarly strange, covered in hairy spikes with a tubular snout in the place of a mouth, and a tongue that can move in and out of the snout about 100 times a minute to capture termites. Australia has the world's largest and most diverse range of marsupials.[19HP 608772-001 CPU Fan ] Marsupials are characterised by the presence of a pouch in which they rear their young.[19] The carnivorous marsupials—order Dasyuromorphia—are represented by two surviving families: the Dasyuridae with 51 members, and the Myrmecobiidae with the numbat as its sole surviving member.[20] Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan The Tasmanian Tiger was the largest Dasyuromorphia[21] and the last living specimen of the family Thylacinidae died in captivity in 1936.[7] The world's largest surviving carnivorous marsupial is the Tasmanian Devil; it is the size of a small dog and can hunt, although it is mainly a scavenger.[21][22] HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan It became extinct on the mainland some 600 years ago, and is now found only in Tasmania.[22] There are four species of quoll, or native cat, all of which are threatened species.[18] The remainder of the Dasyuridae are referred to as 'marsupial mice';[23] most weigh less than 100 g.[24] HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan There are two species of Marsupial Mole—order Notoryctemorphia—that inhabit the deserts of Western Australia. These rare, blind and earless carnivorous creatures spend most of their time underground; little is known about them. The bandicoots and bilbies—order Peramelemorphia—are marsupial omnivores.[27] COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan There are seven species in Australia, most of which are endangered.[28][29] These small creatures share several characteristic physical features: a plump, arch-backed body with a long, delicately tapering snout, large upright ears, long, thin legs, and a thin tail.[28] Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan The evolutionary origin of this group is unclear, because they share characteristics from both carnivorous and herbivorous marsupials.Herbivorous marsupials are classified in the order Diprotodontia, and further into the suborders Vombatiformes and Phalangerida. The Vombatiformes include the Koala and the three species of wombat. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan One of Australia's best-known marsupials, the Koala is an arboreal species that feeds on the leaves of various species of eucalyptus.[30] Wombats, on the other hand, live on the ground and feed on grasses, sedges and roots.[30] Wombats use their rodent-like front teeth and powerful claws to dig extensive burrow systems; HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan they are mainly crepuscular and nocturnal.[30] The Phalangerida includes six families and 26 species of possum and three families with 53 species of macropod. The possums are a diverse group of arboreal marsupials and vary in size from the Little Pygmy Possum, weighing just 7 g,[31] HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan to the cat-sizedCommon Ringtail and Brushtail possums.[32][33] The Sugar and Squirrel Gliders are common species of gliding possum, found in the eucalypt forests of eastern Australia, while the Feathertail Glider is the smallest glider species.[34][35] The gliding possums have membranes called 'patagiums' that extend from the fifth finger of their forelimb back to the first toe of their hind foot. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan These membranes, when outstretched, allow them to glide between trees. The macropods are divided into three families: the Hypsiprymnodontidae, with the Musky Rat-kangaroo as its only member;[36] thePotoroidae, with 11 species; and the Macropodidae, with 45 species.[37] HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan Macropods are found in all Australian environments except alpine areas. The Potoroidae include the bettongs, potaroos and rat-kangaroos, small species that make nests and carry plant material with their tails.[38] The Macropodiae include kangaroos, wallabies and associated species; size varies widely within this family. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan Most macropods have large hind legs and long, narrow hind feet,[39] with a distinctive arrangement of four toes, and powerfully muscled tails, which they use to hop around.[40] The Musky Rat-kangaroo is the smallest macropod and the only species that is quadrupedal not bipedal,[41] HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan while the male Red Kangaroo is the largest, reaching a height of about 2 m and weighing up to 85 kg.Australia has indigenous placental mammals from two orders: the bats—order Chiroptera—represented by six families; and the mice and rats—order Rodentia, family Muridae. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan Bats and rodents are relatively recent arrivals to Australia; bats are present in the fossil record only from as recently as 15 MYA, and probably arrived from Asia.There are only two endemic genera of bats,[44] although 7% of the world's bats species live in Australia.[ Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan Rodents first arrived in Australia 5–10 MYA,[44] undergoing a wide radiation to produce the species collectively known as the 'old endemic' rodents.[45] The old endemics are represented by 14 extant genera.[ A million years ago, the rat entered Australia from New Guinea and evolved into seven species of Rattus, collectively called the 'new endemics'.[45] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan Since human settlement many placental mammals have been introduced to Australia and are now feral.[44] The first animal introduced to Australia was the dingo.[44] Fossil evidence suggests that people from the north brought the dingo to Australia about 5000 years ago.[46] Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan When Europeans settled Australia they intentionally released many species into the wild including the red fox, brown hare, and the European rabbit.[44][47] Other domestic species have escaped and over time have produced wild populations including the cat, fallow deer, red deer, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan sambar deer, rusa deer, chital, hog deer, horse, donkey, pig, goat,water buffalo, and the camel.[48][49] Only three species of placental mammal were not deliberately introduced to Australia, the House Mouse, Black Rat and theBrown Rat. Forty-six marine mammals from the order Cetacea are found in Australian coastal waters. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan Since the majority of these species have global distribution, some authors do not consider them to be Australian species. There are nine species of baleen whalepresent, including the Humpback Whale.[52] There are 37 species of toothed whale, which include all six genera of the familyZiphiidae, and 21 species of oceanic dolphin, HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan including the Australian Snubfin Dolphin, a species first described in 2005.[53] Some oceanic dolphins, such as the Orca, can be found in all waters around the continent; others, such as theIrrawaddy Dolphin, are confined to the warm northern waters.[54] HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan The Dugong is an endangered marine species that inhabits the waters of north-eastern and north-western Australia, particularly the Torres Strait.[44][51] It can grow up to 3 m long and weigh as much as 400 kg.[51] The dugong is the only herbivorous marine mammal in Australia, feeding on sea grass in coastal areas.[ HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan The destruction of sea grass beds is a threat to the survival of this species.[50] Eleven species of seal—family Pinnipedia—live off the southern coast. Australia and its territories are home to around 800 species of bird;[56] about 350 of these are endemic to the zoogeographic region that covers Australia, New Guinea and New Zealand.[ HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

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