Tuesday, November 5, 2013

In Turner Valley, Alberta for example

In Turner Valley, Alberta for example, where the first significant field of petroleum was found in 1914, it was common to extract a small amount of petroleum liquids by flaring off about 90% of the natural gas. According to a 2001 report that amount of gas that would have been worth billions. In 1938 the Alberta provincial government responded to the conspicuous and wasteful burning of natural gas. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan By the time crude oil was discovered in the Turner Valley field, in 1930, most of the free gas cap had been flared off.[23] The Alberta Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board (today known as the Energy Resources Conservation Board) was established in 1931 to initiate conservation measures but by that time the Depression caused a waning of interest in petroleum production in Turner Valley which was revived from 1939-1945. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan Canada is also one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products, particularly of wheat and other grains.[49]Canada is a major exporter of agricultural products, to the United States and Asia. As with all other developed nations the proportion of the population and GDP devoted to agriculture fell dramatically over the 20th century. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan As with other developed nations, the Canadian agriculture industry receives significant government subsidies and supports. However, Canada has been a strong supporter of reducing market influencing subsidies through the World Trade Organization. In 2000, Canada spent approximately CDN$4.6 billion on supports for the industry. Of this, $2.32 billion was classified under the WTO designation of "green box" support, IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan meaning it did not directly influence the market, such as money for research or disaster relief. All but $848.2 million were subsidies worth less than 5% of the value of the crops they were provided for, which is the WTO. Canada is one of the largest agricultural producers and exporters in the world. As with other developed nations, the proportion of the population and GDP devoted to agriculture fell dramatically over the 20th century but it remains an important element of the Canadian economy. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan A wide range of agriculture is practised in Canada, from sprawling wheat fields of the prairies to summer produce of theOkanagan valley. In the federal government, overview of Canadian agriculture is the responsibility of the department of Agriculture and Agri-Food. In the 17th century Samuel de Champlain and Gabriel Sagard recorded that the Iroquois and Huron cultivated the soil for maize or "Indian corn".[2] DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan Maize (Zea mays), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), beans (phaseolus), squash (Cucurbita) and the sunflower(Helianthus annus) were grown throughout agricultural lands in North America by the 16th century. As early as 2300 BC evidence of squash was introduced to the northeastern woodlands region. Archaeological findings from 500 AD have shown corn cultivation in southern Ontario.[3] ASUS F80S CPU Fan Eastern Canada was settled well before the West. Immigration and trading posts came later to Rupert's Land and the Northwest Territories. The early immigrants combined European agricultural and domestication procedures with the indigenous knowledge of the land and animals of the area.As early as 1605, the French Acadians built dikes in the Maritimes for wheat, flax, vegetables, pasturage and marshlandfarming.HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan Dairy production is the main contribution of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, along with livestock and mixed farming ventures. A small percentage of land is put into use in fruit farming as well along Nova Scotia's northwest coastal areas. The American Revolution, 1775–1783, and its attendant food decline resulted in 3100 hectares cleared in Newfoundland. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan In the early 19th century Irish immigrants began arriving who cultivated the land in Newfoundland.[5] A very small percentage of the land is suitable in Newfoundland and Labrador for horticultural or crop production because there is a lot of forested and tundra geography. The province has some dairy production and farming concerns. Following World War II, farm training was available at the Government Demonstration Farm. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan Bonuses were paid for such things as the purchase of pure-bred sires, land clearing, and agriculture exhibition assistance to name a few. The industry of fish processing for food is the largest agricultural contribution from Newfoundland. Newfoundland fisheries, supply cod for the most part, followed closely by herring, haddock, lobster, rose fish, seals, and whales. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan The fishing industry depends very heavily upon exports and world conditions. Agriculture in the West started with Peter Pond gardening plots at Lake Athabasca in 1778. Although large-scale agriculture was still many years off, Hudson's Bay Company traders, gold rush miners, and missionaries cultivated crops, gardens and raised livestock.[7] HP 535438-001 CPU Fan The Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut are covered with the Canadian Shield, and rocky outcrops, sub Arctic forest soils, and stony phases make up most of the geography. It is an area of comparatively smaller population and not commercially exploited for the most part. Whaling, prawns, and trapping food processing contribute to agricultural food production here.[8] DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan In New France hops, hemp and livestock were introduced in 1663. The seigneurial system of farming was adopted in Quebec.[9]Quebec's agricultural sector relies heavily on its fruit and vegetable production. In 1890, a competition began to encourage farmers to improve their farms to achieve the Agricultural Merit Order. County farm improvement contests were begun about 1930 involving over 5,000 farms and their evolution over five years. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan They have some interests in livestock and mixed farming and diary as well. St. Hyacinthe operated an artificial insemination station from 1951 for breeders clubs.[10][11] The British enforced Corn (Cereal grains) laws, 1794–1846, protected the British agricultural sector from imports of British North American wheat. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan TheReciprocity Treaty, 6 June 1854, developed a trade agreement between Canada and the United States which affected trade of wheat grown in Ontario.[12] NorthernOntario is mainly tundra and forested area, whereas southern Ontario has lands suitable for livestock and general farming as well as geography suitable for pasture and dairying industries. Fruit farming and tobacco farms can also be found in southern Ontario. ASUS A8H CPU Fan Ontario is the largest producer of mixed grains,soybeans and shelled corn in the country. Lord Selkirk, founder of the Red River Colony, harvested the first wheat crop in the western prairies in 1814. Red Fife wheat was introduced in 1868. Swine were brought to the Red River colony as early as 1819. The frontier land of southwest Albertaand southeast Saskatchewan were opened to ranching in the 19th century.[14] SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan Manitoba has a combination of mixed grain, livestock, and mixed farming industries in its southernmost areas. Cattle ranching around Lake Manitoba is also quite successful. Northern Manitoba consists of extensive lakes and forested geographical areas.[15] The Dominion Land Act of 1872offered agricultural pioneers an opportunity to "prove up" a quarter section of land (160 acres/65 hectares) HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan in western Canada for a $10.00 filing fee and three years of improvements combined with residence on the land.[16] Saskatchewan still has cattle ranching along its southwestern corner; grain farming and crops such as wheat, oats, flax, alfalfa, and rapeseed(especially canola) dominate the parkland area. Mixed grain farming, dairy farms, mixed livestock and grazing lands dot thecentral lowlands region of this prairie province. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan Alberta is renowned still for its stampedes, and cattle ranching is a main industry. The agricultural industry is supplemented by livestock and mixed farming and wheat crops. Alberta is the second largest producer of wheat in Canada. Grain and dairying also play a role in the livelihoods of Alberta farmers.[18] The open parkland area extends across the three prairie provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan Canada's production of wheat, oats, flaxseed, and barley come mainly from this area. Meat processing is the largest industry here, followed by dairy production, breweries, and the subsidiary industry of agricultural implements.[19] British Columbia is covered in highlands; its eastern boundary is the Rocky Mountains. Livestock, cattle ranches, fruit farming and dairying dot the province. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan Agriculture and fisheries are a small contribution industry over shadowed by construction and forestry.[20] Agricultural production in British Columbia supplied the gold rush industry, mining and logging industries. Agricultural producers relied on these local markets, following the economic boom and bust of each enterprise respectively. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan The British Columbia Fruit-Growers' Association was established in 1889 to foster an export market of this commodity.[21] The Canada Agriculture Museum preserves Canadian agricultural history. In 1925, Saskatchewan produced over half of the wheat in the Dominion of Canada, threshing in excess of 240,000,000 bushels(6,500,000 metric tons) of wheat.[25] Rapeseed, alfalfa, barley, canola, flax, rye, and oats are other popularly grown grain crops. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan Wheat is a staple crop from Canada. To help homesteaders attain an abundance harvest in a foreshortened growing season, varieties of wheat were developed at the beginning of the twentieth century. Red Fife was the first strain; it was a wheat which could be seeded in the fall and sprout in the early spring. Red Fife ripened nearly two weeks sooner and was a harder wheat than other spring wheats. Dr. C. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan Saunders, experimented further with Red Fife, and developed Marquis Wheat, which was resistant to rust and came to maturity within 100 days. Some other types of wheat grown are durum, spelt, and winter wheat. In recent years Canadian farmers have also began to grow rice due to the increase in the Asian population in Canada.[26] SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA) was established in 1935 to provide Federal financial assistance in regard to the global economical crisis. The PFRA provides farmers with land and water resources such as irrigation, soil drifting conservation and small farm water development. The Farm credit program has established the Canadian Farm Loan Act to provide stock bonds and farm improvement loans. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan Horticulture which includes nursery and floral crops, and fruits became easier to grow with the development of plant hardiness zones.[28] Apples, pears, plums and prunes, peaches, apricots, cherries,strawberries, raspberries, loganberries and fruit orchards are numerous and reach commercial size in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Niagara Peninsula and Norfolk County of Ontario and Okanagan Valley[29] of British Columbia. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan Hazelnuts are harvested in Eastern Canada and British Columbia.[30] Maple syrup and maple sugar, maple butter, and maple taffy are products of Quebec along the St. Lawrence River. The main market for Canadian maple syrup and sugar is the United States[31] Potatoes are an abundant harvest of the Maritime provinces.[32] Sugar beets and beet root sugar are harvested in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan 115,000 cattle roamed the southern prairies by 1900. Livestock can include the raising of cows, also commonly called cattle. Recently domestication of the buffalo[35] and elk[36] has initiated a new food industry. Sheep have been raised for both wool and meat.[37] Bovine or pig barns have been a part of livestock culture.[38] Scientists have been making forward steps in swine research giving rise to intensive pig farming. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan The domestication of various farm animals meant that corresponding industries such as feedlots, animal husbandry and meat processing have also been studied, and developed. In recent years farmers have been producing alternative crops which are economically viable, and amongst these are organic farm crops. Hemp and wool from sheep are the main areas of fibre production of Canada. Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan Wool production was on average 16,022,000 pounds (7,267 t) in the 1930s and 9,835,000 pounds (4,461 t) in 1949.[10] Fibre flax from flaxseed has been exported to the United Kingdom. Crop growers may supplement their income with beeswax and honey and learn beekeeping. Enterprising land owners have had success growing as well as packaging and marketing the sunflower seed. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan Crops are not only for human consumption but also for animal consumption, which opens a new market such as canary seed. Cuniculture, or rabbit farming, is another livestock enterprise. Cannabis is an important crop in some areas, making up 5% of British Columbia's GDP. According to BC Business Magazine, the crop is worth $7.5 billion to the province annually, and gives employment to 250,000 people.[42] Québec produces an even bigger crop. ASUS G2P CPU Fan The Department of Agriculture set out in the British North America Act (B.N.A.) of 1867 states each province may have jurisdiction over agricultural concerns, as well as the Dominion Government may also make law in regard to agriculture. Newfoundland agricultural affairs were dealt with by the Agricultural Division of the Department of Natural Resources at Confederation.[10] Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan The B.N.A. Act states that the federal Government has sole authority in coastal and inland fishery matters. Provinces have rights over non-tidal waters and fishing practices there only. Canadian farms, fisheries and ranches produce a wide variety of crops, livestock, food, feed, fibre, fuel and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals which are dependent upon the geography of the province. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan In 2001 farms numbered only 246,923 at a size of 676 acres (2.74 km2) as the production of food and fibre for human or livestock sustenance has evolved into intensive and industrial practices.[44][45] As of 2002, wheat constituted the largest crop area at 12.6%. Canadian farmers received a record $36.3 billion in 2001 from livestock, crop sales and program payments.[46] HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan In 2001, the accrued net income of farm operators from farm production amounted to 1,633 million dollars, which amounts to 0.147% of Canada's gross domestic product at market prices which is 1,108,200 million dollars.[45] Fisheries are also playing an important role while forestry plays a secondary role. Canada's evolution has abandoned subsistence techniquesand now sees a mere 3% of Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan Canada's population employed as a mechanized industrial farmer who are able feed the rest of the nation's population of 30,689.0 thousand people (2001) as well as export to foreign markets.[47] (Canada's estimated population was 32,777,300 on 1 January 2007) The marketing and economic movement of Canada's various agriculture commodities has been a challenge. Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan Domestic trade encompasses providing goods within Canada provincially and inter-provincial. Support agencies and services such as storage, railways, warehouses, stores, banking institutions all affect domestic trade. Trade of wheat from the Canada's prairies are monitored by the Canadian Wheat Board. Canada's depression of 1882–1897 brought a low of 64¼ cents per bushel ($24/t) as of 1893. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan This era during Laurier's administration saw thousands of homesteads cancelled. Wheat prices soared during World War I. In 1928, Canada exported high quantities of wheat, flour, and goods. The depression took its toll on Canada as exports sunk to approximately 40% of their 1928 amount. European markets stopped needing to import Canadian wheat as they started growing their own varieties, and then World War II events put a blockade on trade to European markets. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan Canada became more of an industrial entity during the time of this industrial revolution, and less of an agricultural nation. Following World War II the United Kingdom entered into contract for a large amount of agricultural commodities such as bacon, cheese, wheat, oats and barley. After the United Kingdom, the United States is Canada's largest external trade partner. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan Between 1943 and 1953, the average export of Canadian wheat was 347,200,000 bushels (9,449,000 t).[49] The three year International Wheat Agreement of 1955, which really lasted 6 years, included exports of wheat or flour to 28 of 44 importing countries including Germany, Japan, Belgium, UK, and the Netherlands. Agribusiness are activities of food and fibre production and processing which are not part of the farm operation. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan This would include the production of farm equipment and fertilizers to aid farm production.[50] Agribusiness also includes the firms that purchase the raw goods from the farm for further processing. The meat packing industry, flour mill, and canning industry would be included in the agribusiness sector processing farm products.[51] A recent growth area in agribusiness is the advent of organized farmland investment funds operating on the model of direct land ownership with rental back to farmers as operators. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan Agricultural science began developing new styles of farming and strains of wheat and crops so that farming could become a successful venture. Farming methods were developed at places such as Dominion Experimental Farm,[82] Rosthern Experimental Station,[83] and Bell Farm.[84] From 1914 to 1922, the Better Farming Traintravelled around rural of Saskatchewan areas educating pioneer farmers.[85] SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan The 1901 census showed 511,100 farms and the number of farms peaked in 1941 at a record 732,800 farms.[45] The industrial revolution modernised the farming industry as mechanized vehicles replaced the oxen ploughed land or the horse-drawn cart. Farms became much larger, and mechanized evolving towards industrial agriculture. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan Farming activities were very labour intensive before the industrial revolution and the advent of tractors, combines, balers, etc. From the late 19th century to mid-20th century, a great percentage of the Canadian labour force was engaged in high labour, smaller farming practices. After mechanization, scientific advancement, improved marketing practices farms became more efficient, larger and less labour intensive. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan The labour population was freed up and went to industry, government, transportation, trade and finance.[86] Agriculture, stock raising and horticulture employed one-fourth of the Canadian population according to the 1951 census as well as providing products for exports and Canadian manufacturing concerns. The Oliver Chilled Plow, which could cut through the prairie sod, was in use by 1896. Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan Binders which could cut and tie grain for the harvest season and grain elevators for storage were introduced in the late 19th century as well.[87] Plows, tractors, spreaders, combines to name a few are some mechanized implements for the grain crop or horticultural farmer which are labour saving devices. Many Canadian museums such as Reynolds-Alberta Museum will showcase the evolution and variety of farm machinery. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan The depression and drought of the Dirty Thirties was devastating. This drought resulted in a mass exodus of population from the prairies, as well as new agricultural practices such as soil conservation, and crop rotation.[88] Soil conservation practices such as crop rotation, cover crops, and windbreaks to name a few were massively developed and set in forth upon recovering from the drought experiences of the dirty thirties. Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan Literally layers and layers of topsoil would be blowing away during this time. Bow River Irrigation Project, Red Deer River Project and the St. Mary Irrigation project of Alberta, were a few of the major projects undertaken by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act (P.F.R.A.) resulting in reservoirs, and distribution systems.[10] A current project is Liming (soil) soil liming at the Land Resource Research Institute.[89][90] HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan Wheat diseases such as wheat bunt and stinking smut can be successfully treated with a fungicide. Disease of plants and animals can break an agricultural producer. Tuberculosis in animals was an early threat, and cattle needed to be tested, and areas accredited in 1956. The newer disease such as chronic wasting disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affects both elk and deer. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan Elk and deer raising is a pioneer field of domestication, has had a setback with this disease.[91] Mad cow disease in cattle[92] and scrapie of sheep[93]are monitored by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The poultry sector was plagued by Pullorum disease, and by controlling the flock via poultry husbandry, this disease has been brought under control. Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan Plants whose traits can be modified to survive a disease or insect have made inroads into Canadian agricultural practices. Cereal rusts which can destroy the majority of areas seeded to wheat, was controlled in 1938 by breeding strains which were rust-resistant. This strain was successful until around 1950, when again a new variety of rust broke out, and again a new species of wheat called Selkirk was developed which was rust resistant.[9HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan Biotechnology is the center of new research and regulations affecting agriculture this century. To increase the viability of agriculture as an economic lifestyle several improvements have been made by various nationwide educational facilities. Inroads and innovations have been made in the diverse fields of agricultural science, agricultural engineering, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan agricultural soil science, Sustainable agriculture,Agricultural productivity, agronomy, biodiversity, bioengineering, irrigation and swine research for example. Canadian universities conducting agricultural research include McGill University, Nova Scotia University, Université Laval, Université de Montréal, University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, HP G60-230us CPU Fan University of Calgary, University of Guelph, University of Manitoba, University of Saskatchewan and University of Prince Edward Island. The Ontario Veterinary College is located at the University of Guelph and the Western College of Veterinary Medicine is located at the University of Saskatchewan.[97] The Atlantic Veterinary College is located at the University of P.E.I.[98] and there are also faculties of veterinary medicine at the University of Calgary[99] and Université de Montréal. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan Canada and the United States share a common trading relationship. Canada's job market continues to perform well along with the US, reaching a 30 year low in the unemployment rate in December 2006, following 14 consecutive years of employment growth. The United States is by far Canada's largest trading partner, with more than $1.7 billion CAD in trade per day in 2005. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan In 2009 73% of Canada's exports went to the United States, and 63% of Canada's imports were from the United States.[51]Trade with Canada makes up 23% of the United States' exports and 17% of its imports.[52] By comparison, in 2005 this was more than U.S. trade with all countries in the European Union combined,[53] and well over twice U.S. trade with all the countries of Latin America combined.[54] COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan Just the two-way trade that crosses the Ambassador Bridge between Michigan andOntario equals all U.S. exports to Japan. Canada's importance to the United States is not just a border-state phenomenon: Canada is the leading export market for 35 of 50 U.S. states, and is the United States' largest foreign supplier of energy. Bilateral trade increased by 52% between 1989, when the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) went into effect, IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan and 1994, when the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) superseded it.[citation needed] Trade has since increased by 40%. NAFTA continues the FTA's moves toward reducing trade barriers and establishing agreed-upon trade rules. It also resolves some long-standing bilateral irritants and liberalizes rules in several areas, including agriculture, services, energy, financial services, investment, and government procurement. NAFTA forms the largest trading area in the world, embracing the 405 million people of the three North American countries. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan The largest component of U.S.-Canada trade is in the commodity sector. The U.S. is Canada's largest agricultural export market, taking well over half of all Canadian food exports.[55]Similarly, Canada is the largest market for U.S. agricultural goods, with nearly 20% of American food exports going to its northern neighbour.[ DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan Nearly two-thirds of Canada's forest products, including pulp and paper, are exported to the United States; 72% of Canada's total newsprint production also is exported to the U.S. At $73.6 billion in 2004, U.S.-Canada trade in energy is the largest U.S. energy trading relationship, with the overwhelming majority ($66.7 billion) being exports from Canada. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan The primary components of U.S. energy trade with Canada arepetroleum, natural gas, and electricity. Canada is the United States' largest oil supplier and the fifth-largest energy producing country in the world. Canada provides about 16% of U.S. oil imports and 14% of total U.S. consumption of natural gas. The United States and Canada's national electricity grids are linked, and both countries share hydropower facilities on the western borders. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan While most of U.S.-Canada trade flows smoothly, there are occasionally bilateral trade disputes, particularly in the agricultural and cultural fields. Usually these issues are resolved through bilateral consultative forums or referral to World Trade Organization (WTO) or NAFTA dispute resolution. In May 1999, the U.S. and Canadian governments negotiated an agreement on magazines that provides increased access for the U.S. publishing industry to the Canadian market. Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan The United States and Canada also have resolved several major issues involving fisheries. By common agreement, the two countries submitted a Gulf of Maine boundary dispute to the International Court of Justice in 1981; both accepted the court's 12 October 1984 ruling which demarcated the territorial sea boundary. A current issue between the United States and Canada is the ongoing softwood lumber dispute, as the U.S. alleges that Canada unfairly subsidizes its forestry industry.[ Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan In 1990, the United States and Canada signed a bilateral Fisheries Enforcement Agreement, which has served to deter illegal fishing activity and reduce the risk of injury during fisheries enforcement incidents. The U.S. and Canada signed a Pacific Salmon Agreement in June 1999 that settled differences over implementation of the 1985 Pacific Salmon Treaty for the next decade.[ Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan Canada and the United States signed an aviation agreement during Bill Clinton's visit to Canada in February 1995, and air traffic between the two countries has increased dramatically as a result. The two countries also share in operation of the St. Lawrence Seaway, connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.[56] The U.S. is Canada's largest foreign investor and the most popular destination for Canadian foreign investments; Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan at the end of 2007, the stock of U.S. direct investment in Canada was estimated at $293 billion, while Canadian direct investment (stock) in the United States was valued at $213 billion.[57][58] U.S. FDI accounts for 59.5% of total foreign direct investment in Canada while Canadian FDI in the U.S. accounts for 10% (5th largest foreign investor).[59] US investments are primarily directed at Canada's mining and smelting industries, ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan petroleum, chemicals, the manufacture of machinery and transportation equipment, and finance, while Canadian investment in the United States is concentrated in manufacturing, wholesale trade, real estate, petroleum, finance, and insurance and other services. The United States and Canada have the largest trade relationship in the world.[1] SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan In 2012, US merchandise trade with Canada consisted of $324.2 billion in imports and $292.4 billion in exports.[2] The trade relationship between the two countries crosses all industries and is vital to both nations’ success. Each country is the largest trade partner of the other. The trade across Ambassador Bridge between Windsor, Ontario and Detroit, Michigan alone is equal to all the trade between the United States and Japan. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan Since 1866, free trade has been a debated topic by Canadian politicians.[citation needed] Free trade was generally supported by the Liberal Party of Canada, and was a main topic in the 1911 Canadian Federal Election.[citation needed] After the Liberals lost that election, the topic was a non-issue for many years. Although there were many bilateral agreements reducing tariffs, HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan a free trade agreement was not reached until the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement in 1987. The agreement intended to promote a free market between the two nations, and encourage investments within that market. The Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement laid the groundwork for a multilateral agreement between, the United States, Mexico, and Canada, called the North American Free Trade Agreement. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan NAFTA has helped fuel the relations between the three nations. Although there are some discrepancies between the countries’ especially in the area of automobiles and agriculture, the trends are negligible as the agreement has arguably been a boon for none all nations involved. There are several disputes arising from the bilateral trade between the two nations. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan The United States has placed Canada on its Special 301 watch list overintellectual property rights enforcement (although under the mildest category of "rebuke"). Other products from Canada under dispute include softwood lumber, beef, tomatoes, and other agricultural products.[4] The heightened border security as a result of the 2001 terrorist attacks has been an issue of concern for businesses in both countries. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan The Issue has become less of a concern as technology, registration, training, and fewer rules. However a midpoint estimate of US $10.5 billion cost to businesses in delays and uncertain travel time.[1] One ongoing and complex trade issue involves the importation of cheaper prescription drugs from Canada to the United States. Due to the Canadian government'sprice controls as part of their state-run medical system, HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan prices for prescription drugs can be a fraction of the price paid by consumers in the unregulated U.S. market. While laws in the United States have been passed at the national level against such sales, specific state and local governments have passed their own legislation to allow the trade to continue. American drug companies—often supporters of political campaigns—have obviously come out against the practice. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan According to a 2007 study commissioned by the Canadian Embassy in the United States, Canada–U.S. trade supported 7.1 million U.S. jobs. The Canada–United States softwood lumber dispute is one of the most significant and enduring trade disputes in modern history. The dispute has had its biggest effect on British Columbia, the major Canadian exporter of softwood lumber to the United States. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan The heart of the dispute is the claim that the Canadian lumber industry is unfairly subsidized by the federal and provincial governments. Specifically, most timber in Canada is owned by provincial governments. The price charged to harvest the timber (the "stumpage fee") is set administratively rather than through a competitive auction, as is often the practice in the United States. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan The United States claims that the provision of government timber at below market prices constitutes an unfair subsidy. Under U.S. trade remedy laws, foreign goods benefiting from subsidies can be subject to a countervailing duty tariff to offset the subsidy and bring the price of the product back up to market rates. Since the September 11th attacks, there has been debate on whether there should be further North American integration. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan Some have proposed the adoption of the Amero under the North American Currency Union as the official currency of North America.While these discussions are more prevalent in Canada, studies have shown that United States citizens would not object to economic integration. According to Former U.S. Ambassador Paul Cellucci however, “Security trumps trade” in the United States, HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan and so as long as Canada is considered a possible point of entry for terrorists, such integration seems unfeasible. The strength of the Canada-U.S. relationship is demonstrated by impressive bilateral trade of approximately $1.9 billion a day, along the world’s longest undefended border. Energy trade is the largest component of this cross-border commerce. Canada has the third-largest oil reserves, HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan after Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, because of its oil-sands resources. The United States has historically been Canada’s only foreign market for natural gas, oil, and hydro power. In 2010, almost 100% of Canada’s exports in these commodity classes were destined for the United States. Canada is the largest foreign supplier of crude oil (25% of oil imports) and natural gas to the United States. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

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