Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female human breasts (i.e., vialactation) rather than using infant formula. Babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and swallow milk. Experts recommend that children be breastfed within one hour of birth, exclusively breastfed for the first six months, and then breastfed until age two with age-appropriate, nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods.[ DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends for the U.S. that after 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, babies should continue to breastfeed "for a year and for as long as is mutually desired by the mother and baby".[6] Inadequate nutrition is an underlying cause of the deaths of more than 2.6 million children and over 100,000 mothers every year.[1] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan Some working mothers express milk to be used while their child is being cared for by others. Breastfeeding was the rule in ancient times up to recent human history, and babies were carried with the mother and fed as required. With 18th and 19th century industrialization in the Western world, mothers in many urban centers began dispensing with breastfeeding due to their work requirements. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan Breastfeeding declined significantly from 1900 to 1960, due to increasingly negative social attitudes towards the practice and the development of infant formula.[7] Under modern health care, human breast milk is considered the healthiest form of milk for babies.[8] From the 1960s onwards, breastfeeding experienced a revival which continues to the 2000s, though some negative attitudes towards the practice still remain. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan Breastfeeding promotes the health of both mother and infant and helps to prevent disease.[9][10][11] Longer breastfeeding has also been associated with better mental health through childhood and into adolescence.[12] Experts agree that breastfeeding is beneficial and have concerns about the effects of artificial formulas. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan Artificial feeding is associated with more deaths from diarrhea in infants in both developing and developed countries.[13] There are, however, a few exceptions, such as when the mother is taking certain drugs, has active untreated tuberculosis or is infected with human T-lymphotropic virus. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan TheWorld Health Organization recommends that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice should be promoted and supported by their maternal and child health services to best avoid HIV infection transmission from mother to child. In the Egyptian, Greek and Roman empires, women usually fed only their own children. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan However, breastfeeding began to be seen as something too common to be done by royalty, and wet nurses were employed to breastfeed the children of the royal families. This extended over time, particularly in western Europe, where noble women often made use of wet nurses. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan But lower class women breastfed their infants and used a wet nurse only if they were unable to feed their own infant. Attempts were made in 15th-century Europe to use cow or goat milk, but these attempts were not successful. In the 18th century, flour or cereal mixed with broth were introduced as substitutes for breastfeeding, but this did not have a favorable outcome either.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan During the early 1900s breastfeeding started to be viewed negatively by Western societies, especially in Canada and the USA. These societies considered it a low class and uncultured practice, viewing it with a certain degree of disgust.[14] This coincided with the appearance of improved infant formulas in the mid 19th century and its increased use, which accelerated after World War II. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan From the 1960s onwards, breastfeeding experienced a revival which continues to the 2000s, though negative attitudes towards the practice were still intrenched up to 1990s. The vast majority of mothers can and should breastfeed, just as the vast majority of infants can and should be breastfed. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan Only under exceptional circumstances can a mother’s milk be considered unsuitable for her infant. For those few health situations where infants cannot, or should not, be breastfed, the choice of the best alternative–expressed breast milk from an infant’s own mother, breast milk from a healthy wet-nurse or ahuman-milk bank, HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan or a breast-milk substitute fed with a cup, which is a safer method than a feeding bottle and teat–depends on individual circumstances.Exclusive breastfeeding (giving your baby breast milk only) is recommended for around the first six months (26 weeks) of your baby's life. After that, giving your baby breast milk alongside other food will help them continue to grow and develop. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan Any amount of breastfeeding has a positive effect. The longer you breastfeed, the longer the protection lasts and the greater the benefits.
Extensive research using improved epidemiologic methods and modern laboratory techniques documents diverse and compelling advantages for infants, mothers, families, and society from breastfeeding and use of human milk for infant feeding. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU FanThese advantages include health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychologic, social, economic, and environmental benefits.[17]
The AAP recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life.[17] Furthermore, "breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond for as long as mutually desired by mother and child." HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan According to the CDC, "The success rate among mothers who want to breastfeed can be greatly improved through active support from their families, friends, communities, clinicians, health care leaders, employers, and policymakers. Given the importance of breastfeeding for the health and well-being of mothers and children, it is critical that we take action across the country to support breastfeeding." HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan Not all the properties of breast milk are understood, but its nutrient content is relatively stable. Breast milk is made from nutrients in the mother's bloodstream and bodily stores. Breast milk has just the right amount of fat, sugar, water, andprotein that is needed for a baby's growth and development.[19] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan Because breastfeeding uses an average of 500 calories a day, it helps the mother lose weight after giving birth.[20] The composition of breast milk changes depending on how long the baby nurses at each session, as well as on the age of the child. The quality of a mother's breast milk may be compromised by smoking, alcoholic beverages, caffeinated drinks, marijuana,methamphetamine, heroin, and methadone.[21] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan However, the American Academy of Pediatrics states that "Tobacco smoking by mothers is not a contraindication to breastfeeding."[17] In addition, the AAP states that while breastfeeding mothers "should avoid the use of alcoholic beverages," an "occasional celebratory single, small alcoholic drink is acceptable, but breastfeeding should be avoided for 2 hours after the drink." HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan Scientific research, such as the studies summarized in a 2007 review for the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality(AHRQ)[22] and a 2007 review for the WHO,[23] have found numerous benefits of breastfeeding for the infant. According to theAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, research shows that breast feeding provides advantages with regard to general health, growth, and development. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan Not breastfeeding significantly increases risk for a large number of acute and chronic diseases including lower respiratory infection, ear infections, bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, botulism, urinary tract infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis.They state that there are a number of studies that show a possible protective effect of breast milk feeding against sudden infant death syndrome, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis,lymphoma, allergic diseases, digestive diseases, and a possible enhancement of cognitive development. During breastfeeding, approximately 0.25-0.5 grams per day of secretory IgA antibodies pass to the baby via the milk.[25][26]This is one of the most important features of colostrum, Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan the breast milk created for newborns.[27] The main target for these antibodies are probably microorganisms in the baby's intestine. There is some uptake of IgA to the rest of the body,[28] but this amount is relatively small.[29] Also, breast milk contains several anti-infective factors such as bile salt stimulated lipase (protecting against amoebic infections) and lactoferrin (which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria). ASUS F80Q CPU Fan Among the studies showing that non-breastfed infants have a higher risk of infection than breastfed infants are: In a 1993 University of Texas Medical Branch study, a longer period of breastfeeding was associated with a shorter duration of some middle ear infections (otitis media with effusion) in the first two years of life.[32] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan A 1995 study of 87 infants found that breastfed babies had half the incidence of diarrheal illness, 19% fewer cases of any otitis media (middle ear) infections, and 80% fewer prolonged cases of middle ear infections than formula fed babies in the first twelve months of life.[33] Breastfeeding appeared to reduce symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections in premature infants up to seven months after release from hospital in a 2002 study of 39 infants.[34] HP 434678-001 CPU Fan A 2004 case-control study found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acquiring urinary tract infections in infants up to seven months of age, with the protection strongest immediately after birth.The 2007 review for AHRQ found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acute otitis media, non-specific gastroenteritis, and severe lower respiratory tract infections. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan In a review article published in the journal Pediatrics, data from 2001 to 2012 were analyzed to discern any safety issue for mothers being vaccinated while breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) concludes that it is safe for women to receive almost all vaccines while nursing their infants. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan The study further found that the protected immunity of the mother obtained by vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough and influenza can pass on to the baby, and that breastfeeding can reduce fever rate after infant immunization. Exceptions are smallpox and yellow fever vaccines which increase the risk of infants developing vaccinia and encephalitis. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan In all other cases AAP recommends women continue breastfeeding after vaccination. Formula fed babies have worse arousal from sleep at 2–3 months. This coincides with the peak incidence of sudden infant death syndrome.A study conducted at the University of Münster found that formula feeding doubled the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in children up to the age of 1. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan Infants exclusively breastfed have less chance of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 than those with a shorter duration of breastfeeding and an earlier exposure to cow milk and solid foods.Breastfeeding also appears to protect against diabetes mellitus type 2, at least in part due to its effects on the child's weight. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan Breastfeeding for more than 6 months is an independent predictor of better mental health through childhood and adolescence according to a large 2009 study.[12]The more months children were breastfed the less likely they were to suffer from depression, delinquent behavior, attention issues and other psychological problems.[12] Breastfeeding also improves cognitive development according to a number of other studies. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan The beneficial effects seem to stem in large part from the unique composition of human milk which, compared to formula milk, has been shown to lead to improved motor and cognitive development in pre-term babies as well. Breastfeeding appears to reduce the risk of extreme obesity in children. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan The protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity is consistent, though small, across many studies, and appears to increase with the duration of breastfeeding. A study has also shown that infants who are bottle-fed in early infancy are more likely to empty the bottle or cup in late infancy than those who are breastfed. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan "Bottle-feeding, regardless of the type of milk, is distinct from feeding at the breast in its effect on infants' self-regulation of milk intake." According to the study, this may be due to one of three possible factors, including that when bottle feeding, parents may encourage an infant to finish the contents of the bottle whereas when breastfeeding, an infant naturally develops self-regulation of milk intake.[ HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan A study in Today's Pediatrics associates solid food given too early to Formula-fed babies before 4 months old will make them 6 times as likely to become obese by age 3. It does not happen if the babies were given solid foods with breast feeding. In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases (defined as at least one parent or sibling having atopy), HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan atopic syndrome can be prevented or delayed through exclusive breastfeeding for four months, though these benefits may not be present after four months of age.[48] However, the key factor may be the age at which non-breastmilk is introduced rather than duration of breastfeeding.[ Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan Atopic dermatitis, the most common form of eczema, can be reduced through exclusive breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks in individuals with a family history of atopy, but when breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks is combined with other foods incidents of eczema rise irrespective of family history. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acute inflammatory disease in the intestines of infants. Necrosis or death of intestinal tissue may follow. It is mainly found in premature births. In one study of 926 preterm infants, NEC developed in 51 infants (5.5%). The death rate from necrotizing enterocolitis was 26%. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan NEC was found to be six to ten times more common in infants fed formula exclusively, and three times more common in infants fed a mixture of breast milk and formula, compared with exclusive breastfeeding. In infants born at more than 30 weeks, NEC was twenty times more common in infants fed exclusively on formula.[ HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan A 2007 meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials found "a marginally statistically significant association" between breastfeeding and a reduction in the risk of NEC. Although one study showed no evidence that breastfeeding offers protection against allergies, another study showed a positive correlation between breastfeeding and a lower risk of asthma. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan This study also showed that breastfeeding protects against allergies, and respiratory and intestinal infections.A review of the association between breastfeeding and celiac disease (CD) concluded that breast feeding while introducing gluten to the diet reduced the risk of CD. The study was unable to determine if breastfeeding merely delayed symptoms or offered lifelong protection.[ Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan According to the findings of a study conducted at the University of Wisconsin, women who were breastfed as infants may have a lower risk of developing breast cancer than those who were not breastfed.Breastfeeding may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, as indicated by lower cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels in adult women who had been breastfed as infants. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan Although a 2001 study suggested that adults who had been breastfed as infants had lower arterial distensibility than adults who had not been breastfed as infants,[56] the 2007 review for the WHO concluded that breastfed infants "experienced lower mean blood pressure" later in life.[ DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan A 2007 review for the AHRQ found that "there is an association between a history of breastfeeding during infancy and a small reduction in adult blood pressure, but the clinical or public health implication of this finding is unclear".[22] A 2006 study found that breastfed babies are better able to cope with stress later in life.[57] HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan In a paper selected by UNICEF as the “Breastfeeding Paper of the Month” it was suggested that breastfed babies have a better chance of good dental health than artificially fed infants because of the effects of breastfeeding on the development of the oral cavity and airway. It was thought that with fewer malocclusions, breastfed children may have a reduced need for orthodontic intervention. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan The report also suggested that children with the proper development of a well rounded, "U-shaped" dental arch, which is found more commonly in breastfed children, may have fewer problems with snoring and sleep apnea in later life. Studies have examined whether breastfeeding in infants is associated with higher intelligence later in life. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan Possible association between breastfeeding and intelligence is not clear. The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "no relationship between breastfeeding in term infants and cognitive performance"[22] and in 2006, a prospective cohort study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis, concluded that "Breast feeding has little or no effect on intelligence in children."[5HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan The researchers found that "Most of the observed association between breast feeding and cognitive development is the result of confounding by maternal intelligence."[59] However a 2007 review for the World Health Organization "suggests that breastfeeding is associated with increased cognitive development in childhood." HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan The review also states that "The issue remains of whether the association is related to the properties of breastmilk itself, or whether breastfeeding enhances the bonding between mother and child, and thus contributes to intellectual development."A 2005 study using data on 2,734 sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health "provide[d] persuasive evidence of a causal connection between breastfeeding and intelligence."HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan In another study, cited as "the largest randomized trial ever conducted in the area of human lactation," between 1996 and 1997 maternity hospitals and polyclinics in Belarus were randomized to receive or not receive breastfeeding promotion modeled on the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative.[61] HP G62-244CA CPU Fan Of 13,889 infants born at these hospitals and polyclinics and followed up in 2002–2005, those who had been born in hospitals and polyclinics receiving breastfeeding promotion had IQs that were 2.9–7.5 points higher (which was significantly higher).[61] Since (among other reasons) a randomized trial should control for maternal IQ, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan the authors concluded in a 2008 paper that the data "provide strong evidence that prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development."[61] Further research in 2013 has supported this theory.[62] One 2013 imaging study indicated that breastfed children experience 15-34% enhanced brain white matter development. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan In 2007, A. Caspi et al. published a study “Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism.” The authors noted that there is currently agreement in the scientific community that both genetic and environmental factors effect specific traits rather than one or another. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan This fact inspired them to try to find a gene that mediates the well-researched phenomenon that children who are breast-fed have higher IQ. In their study they found that babies with a specific version of the FADS2 gene demonstrated an IQ averaging 7 points higher if breastfed, compared with babies with a less common version of the gene who showed no improvement when breastfed.[ HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan FADS2 affects the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in human breast milk, such asdocosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, which are known to be linked to early brain development.[64] The researchers said "Our findings support the idea that the nutritional content of breast milk accounts for the differences seen in human IQ. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan But it's not a simple all-or-none connection: it depends to some extent on the genetic makeup of each infant"[65] and, "further investigation to replicate and explain this specific gene–environment interaction is warranted."[64] However, an attempt to replicate this study in 5934 eight-year-old children failed: Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan No relationship of the common C allele to negative effects of formula feeding was apparent, and contra to the original report, the rare GG homozygote children performed worse when formula fed than other children on formula milk. Another study of over 700 families also criticized the Caspi et al. study. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan The study reported no evidence for either main or moderating effects of the original SNP (rs174575), nor of two additional FADS2 polymorphisms (rs1535 and rs174583), nor any effect of maternal FADS2 status on offspring IQ. Breastfeeding is a cost-effective way of feeding an infant, providing nourishment for a child at a small cost to the mother. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan Frequent and exclusive breastfeeding usually delays the return of fertility through lactational amenorrhea, though breastfeeding is an imperfect means of birth control. During breastfeeding beneficial hormonesare released into the mother's body[26] and the maternal bond can be strengthened.[ Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan Breastfeeding is possible throughout pregnancy, but generally milk production will be reduced at some point.[69] Children who are not breastfed are almost six times more likely to die by the age of one month than children who receive at least some breastmilk. According to some authorities, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that early skin-to-skin contact DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan (also called kangaroo care) of mother and baby stimulates breast feeding behavior in the baby.[71] Newborn infants who are immediately placed on their mother’s skin have a natural instinct to latch on to the breast and start nursing, typically within one hour of being born. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan It is thought that immediate skin-to-skin contact provides a form of imprinting that makes subsequent feeding significantly easier. The World Health Organization reports that in addition to more successful breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby immediately after delivery also reduces crying, HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan improves mother to infant interaction, and keeps baby warm. According to studies quoted by UNICEF, babies have been observed to naturally follow a unique process which leads to a first breastfeed. After birth, babies who are placed skin to skin on their mothers chest will: Initially babies cry briefly – a very distinctive birth cry. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan Then they will enter a stage of relaxation, recovering from the birth Then the baby will start to wake up Then begin to move, initially little movements, perhaps of the arms, shoulders and head As these movements increase he will actually start to crawl towards the breast Once he has found the breast and therefore his food source, he will tend to rest for a little while. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan Often this can be mistaken as the baby is not hungry or wanting to feed However after his rest he will start to familiarise himself with the breast, perhaps by nuzzling, smelling and licking before he finally attaches Once he has suckled for a period of time, he will come off the breast and fall asleep. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan Providing that there are no interruptions, all babies are said to follow this process and it is suggested that trying to rush the process or interruptions such as removing the baby to weigh him/her is counter-productive and may lead to problems at subsequent breastfeeds.[72] Hormones released during breastfeeding help to strengthen the maternal bond.[19] Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan Teaching partners how to manage common difficulties is associated with higher breastfeeding rates.[73] Support for a mother while breastfeeding can assist in familial bonds and help build a paternal bond between father and child.[74] If the mother is away, an alternative caregiver may be able to feed the baby with breast milk expressed with a breast pump. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan Breastfeeding releases oxytocin and prolactin, hormones that relax the mother and make her feel more nurturing toward her baby.[75] This hormone release can help to enable sleep even where a mother may otherwise be having difficulty sleeping. Breastfeeding soon after giving birth increases the mother's oxytocin levels, making her uterus contract more quickly and reducing bleeding. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan Pitocin, a synthetic hormone used to make the uterus contract during and after labour, is structurally modelled on oxytocin. Syntocinon, another synthetic oxytocic, is commonly used in Australia and the UK rather than Pitocin. As the fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, extended breastfeeding—at least 6 months—can help mothers lose weight.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan However, weight loss is highly variable among lactating women; monitoring the diet and increasing the amount/intensity of exercise are more reliable ways of losing weight.[80] The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "The effect of breastfeeding in mothers on return-to-pre-pregnancy weight was negligible, and the effect of breastfeeding on postpartum weight loss was unclear." Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan Dramatic changes occur in a pregnant woman’s metabolism and body composition as she accommodates the demands of providing for the nutritional needs of the growing fetus, and metabolizing for two. In anticipation of lactation, the mother accumulates some stores of visceral fat, but most of it is stored as subcutaneous fat in the thighs, arms, buttocks, and breasts.[ HP 646578-001 CPU Fan This shift in fat content leads to increased insulin production, insulin resistance, and circulating lipid levels in the mother. Studies have indicated that gestational weight gain (GWG) may contribute to complications during labor and delivery and it is the most reliable factor in predicting postpartum weight retention (PPWR).[82] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan In general, the more weight that women put on during pregnancy, the more weight that they retain afterward. Interventions to restrain GWG in the United States and elsewhere have had mixed results in reducing PPWR.[83] The recent recognition of PPWR’s influence on later chronic diseases has brought a surge in data analysis. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan In fact, the proportion of US women who gain weight excessively during pregnancy is growing. In 2005, 20.6% gained 18.2 kg (40 lb), the upper limit recommended by the Institute of Medicine.[84] Recommended weight gains during pregnancy vary according to maternal baseline characteristics.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan The Institute of Medicine has established guidelines where women who are underweight (BMI less than 18.5) are encouraged to gain 13 to 18 kg; women who are at normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9) are encouraged to gain 11–16 kg; those who are overweight (BMI 25-29.9) are suggested to gain 7–11 kg; HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan and those who are obese I (BMI 30-34.9) are recommended to gain 5–9 kg.[85] These recommendations are variable and are meant to inform an obstetrician in caring for a pregnant woman. Extreme gains in visceral fat can put women at higher risk of cardiovascular and glycemic disorders later in life. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan After birth, the fat stores created during pregnancy are primed to be metabolized through lactation. Several investigators have explored the relation between duration of lactation and postpartum weight change, and found a variety of outcomes. Overall, it has been observed that prolonged exclusivity of breastfeeding is associated HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan with increased weight loss when controlling for gestational weight gain and postpartum caloric intake and expenditure.[86] Dietary intake and energy expenditure affect how much weight women lose with lactation. When nutrition is readily available, women compensate for increased energy demands by increasing intake and decreasing energy expenditure, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan rather than mobilizing fat stores. Fat mobilization appears to increase after the first 3 months postpartum, reflecting changes in the hormonal effects of lactation on maternal appetite as frequency of infant feeds decreases.[87] Some findings suggest that formula-feeding mothers during the first two months postpartum consume 600 to 800 fewer calories than breast-feeding mothers and lost substantially more weight. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan From 3 to 6 months post-partum, however, weight loss among breast-feeding women increased substantially. These results suggest that in the early postpartum period, well-nourished women in developed nations tend to increase energy intake and/or decrease physical activity to meet the energy demands of lactation, whereas beyond 3 months, HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan lactating women are more likely to mobilize fat stores. Longitudinal studies using skinfold thickness and MRI scanning of adipose tissue during pregnancy and lactation consistently show fat accumulation in the thigh and buttocks regions during pregnancy, with mobilization from these areas postpartum. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan These studies have indicated that lactation is associated with reduction in subcutaneous fat levels and overall body weight. Recent data suggests that lactation is associated with a reduced risk in chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and heart disease.[ IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan The long-term effects of lactation on body composition vary, and seem to be influenced by socioeconomic factors.[92] Studies have consistently indicated that lactation helps prepare the mother’s body for subsequent pregnancies and reduces complications in later periods of gestation and birth. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan Further research is needed to examine the long-term effects of lactation on maternal body composition and risk for chronic disease. Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. A breastfeeding woman may not ovulate, or have regular periods, during the entire lactation period. SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan The period in which ovulation is absent differs for each woman. This lactational amenorrhea has been used as an imperfect form of natural contraception, with greater than 98% effectiveness during the first six months after birth if specific nursing behaviors are followed. It is possible for women to ovulate within two months after birth while fully breastfeeding and get pregnant again. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan The American Academy of Pediatrics states that breast feeding also has economic health benefits because breastfeeding results in reduced health care costs. The significantly lower incidence of illness in the breastfed infant also allows the parents more time for attention to siblings and other family duties and reduces parental absence from work and lost income. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan Using figures for the year 1993, it was estimated that the cost of purchasing infant formula for the first year after birth was $855. During the first 6 weeks of lactation, maternal caloric intake is no greater for the breastfeeding mother than for the nonlactating mother. After that period, food and fluid intakes are greater, Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan but the cost of the increased caloric intake is about half the cost of purchasing formula, resulting in a saving of about $400.There are many books and videos to advise mothers about breastfeeding. Lactation consultants in hospitals or private practice, and volunteer organizations of breastfeeding mothers such as La Leche League International also provide advice and support. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan In the half hour after birth, the baby's suckling reflex is strongest, and the baby is more alert, so it is the ideal time to start breastfeeding.[105] Breastfeeding also releases hormones that contract the uterus to reduce post-partum bleeding.[106]Early breastfeeding is associated with fewer nighttime feeding problems.[107] IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan A Cochrane review found that early skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby (placing the baby at the mother's breast before dressing the baby) reduces crying, improves mother-baby interaction, keeps the baby warmer, and helps women breastfeed successfully and for a longer period of time. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan Feeding a baby "on demand" (sometimes referred to as "on cue"), means feeding when the baby shows signs of hunger. Newborn babies usually express demand for feeding every 1 to 3 hours per 24 hours (resulting in 8-12 times in 24 hours) for the first two to four weeks. "Experienced breastfeeding mothers learn that the sucking patterns and needs of babies vary. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan While some infants' sucking needs are met primarily during feedings, other babies may need additional sucking at the breast soon after a feeding even though they are not really hungry. Babies may also nurse when they are lonely, frightened or in pain."[110] "Comforting and meeting sucking needs at the breast is nature's original design. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan Pacifiers (dummies, soothers) are a substitute for the mother when she cannot be available. Other reasons to pacify a baby primarily at the breast include superior oral-facial development, prolonged lactational amenorrhea, avoidance of nipple confusion, and stimulation of an adequate milk supply to ensure higher rates of breastfeeding success." ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan Most US states now have laws that allow a mother to breastfeed her baby anywhere she is allowed to be. In hospitals, rooming-in care permits the baby to stay with the mother and improves the ease of breastfeeding. Some commercial establishments provide breastfeeding rooms, although laws generally specify that mothers may breastfeed anywhere, without requiring them to go to a special area. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan Correct positioning and technique for latching on are necessary to prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to obtain enough milk.The "rooting reflex" is the baby's natural tendency to turn towards the breast with the mouth open wide; mothers sometimes make use of this by gently stroking the baby's cheek or lips with their nipple to induce the baby to move into position for a breastfeeding session, ASUS F80S CPU Fan then quickly moving the baby onto the breast while its mouth is wide open.To prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to get enough milk, a large part of the breast and areola need to enter the baby's mouth.Failure to latch on is one of the main reasons for ineffective feeding and can lead to infant health concerns. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan A 2006 study found that inadequate parental education, incorrect breastfeeding techniques, or both were associated with higher rates of preventable hospital re-admissions of newborns. Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as "an infant's consumption of human milk with no supplementation of any type IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan (no water, no juice, no nonhuman milk, and no foods) except for vitamins, minerals, and medications."[17] National and international guidelines recommend that all infants be breastfed exclusively for the first six months of life. Breastfeeding may continue with the addition of appropriate foods, for two years or more. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan Exclusive breastfeeding has dramatically reduced infant deaths in developing countries by reducing diarrhea and infectious diseases. It has also been shown to reduce HIV transmission from mother to child, compared to mixed feeding. While it can be hard to measure how much food a breastfed baby consumes, babies normally feed to meet their own requirements.[ IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan Babies that fail to eat enough may exhibit symptoms of failure to thrive. The La Leche League says that their most often asked question is, "How can I tell if my baby is getting enough milk?" They advise that for the first few days while the baby is receiving mostly colostrum only one or two wet diapers per day is normal. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan Once the mother's milk comes in, usually on the third or fourth day, the baby should begin to have 6-8 wet cloth diapers (5-6 wet disposable diapers) per day. In addition, most young babies will have at least two to five bowel movements every 24 hours for the first several months. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan When direct breastfeeding is not possible, a mother can express (artificially remove and store) her milk. With manual massage or by using a breast pump, a woman can express her milk and store it. It can be stored in freezer storage bags and containers made specifically for breastmilk, a supplemental nursing system, or a bottle ready for use. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan Breast milk may be kept at room temperature for up to six hours, refrigerated for up to eight days or frozen for up to six to twelve months.[123] Research suggests that the antioxidant activity in expressed breast milk decreases over time but it still remains at higher levels than in infant formula.[124] IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan Expressing breast milk can maintain a mother's milk supply when she and her child are apart. If a sick baby is unable to feed, expressed milk can be fed through a nasogastric tube. Expressed milk can also be used when a mother is having trouble breastfeeding. "Exclusively expressing", "exclusively pumping", ASUS A8H CPU Fan and "EPing" are terms for a mother who feeds her baby exclusively her breastmilk while not physically breastfeeding. This may arise because her baby is unable or unwilling to latch on to the breast. With good pumping habits, particularly in the first 12 weeks when the milk supply is being established, SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan it is possible to produce enough milk to feed the baby for as long as the mother wishes. It is generally advised to delay using a bottle to feed expressed breast milk until the baby is 4–6 weeks old and is good at sucking directly from the breast.[125] As sucking from a bottle takes less effort, babies can lose their desire to suck from the breast. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan This is called nursing strike or nipple confusion. To avoid this when feeding expressed breast milk (EBM) before 4–6 weeks of age, it is recommended that breast milk be given by other means such as feeding spoons or feeding cups. Also, EBM should be given by someone other than the breastfeeding mother (or wet nurse), APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan so that the baby can learn to associate direct feeding with the mother (or wet nurse) and associate bottle feeding with other people. With the improvements in breast pumps, many women are able to return to work while exclusively feeding their infants breast milk because of their ability to express milk at work. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan Women can also leave their infants in the care of others for vacation or other extended trips, while maintaining a supply of breast milk. This can be very convenient to the mother.[126] Some women donate their expressed breast milk (EBM) to others, either directly or through a milk bank. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan Though historically the use of wet nurses was common, some women dislike the idea of feeding their own child with another woman's milk; others appreciate being able to give their baby the benefits of breast milk. Feeding expressed breast milk—either from donors or the baby's own mother—is the feeding method of choice for premature babies. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

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