Monday, November 11, 2013

Rain is heaviest in the Otway Ranges and Gippsland

Rain is heaviest in the Otway Ranges and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous north-east. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ6RXN/C CPU Fan Snow generally falls only in the mountains and hills in the centre of the state. Rain falls most frequently in winter, but summer precipitation is heavier. Rainfall is most reliable in Gippsland and the Western District, making them both leading farming areas. Victoria's highest recorded daily rainfall was 375 millimetres (14.8 in) at Tanybryn in the Otway Ranges on 22 March 1983. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan The south-west corner of the state has a Mediterranean climate.[41] The area was originally heavily forested, including large stands of the karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region of Western Australia is in the top nine terrestrial habitats for terrestrial biodiversity, with a higher proportion ofendemic species than most other equivalent regions. ACER eMachines G520 CPU Fan Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current the area numbers in the top six regions for marine biodiversity, containing the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 mm (12 in) at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 mm (55 in) in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but in the months of November to March evaporation exceeds rainfall, and it is generally very dry. HP Pavilion dv5-2132dx CPU Fan Plants must be adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils. A major reduction in rainfall has been observed, with a greater number of rainfall events in the summer months. The central four-fifths of the state is semi-arid or desert and is lightly inhabited with the only significant activity being mining. Annual rainfall averages about 200 to 250 mm (8 to 10 in), most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer months. Compaq Presario CQ60-307ea CPU Fan An exception to this is the northern tropical regions. The Kimberley has an extremely hot monsoonal climate with average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 1,500 mm (20 to 59 in), but there is a very long almost rainless season from April to November. Eighty-five percent of the state's runoff occurs in the Kimberley, but because it occurs in violent floods and because of the insurmountable poverty of the generally shallow soils, the only development has taken place along the Ord River. HP Pavilion dv6-2010sa CPU Fan Australia's tropical/subtropical location and cold waters off the western coast make most of Western Australia a hot desert with aridity a marked feature of a greater part of the continent. These cold waters produce precious little moisture needed on the mainland. A 2005 study by Australian and American researchers[42]investigated the desertification of the interior, and suggested that one explanation was related to human settlers who arrived about 50,000 years ago. Regular burning by these settlers could have prevented monsoons from reaching interior Australia. Toshiba Satellite A40-702 CPU Fan Occurrence of snow in the state is rare, and typically only in the Stirling Range near Albany, as it is the only mountain range far enough south and with sufficient elevation. More rarely, snow can fall on the nearby Porongurup Range. Snow outside these areas is a major event; it usually occurs in hilly areas of south-western Australia. The most widespread low-level snow occurred on 26 June 1956 when snow was reported in the Perth Hills, HP 535442-001 CPU Fan as far north as Wongan Hills and as far east as Salmon Gums. However, even in the Stirling Range, snowfalls rarely exceed 5 cm (2 in) and rarely settle for more than one day.[43] The highest observed maximum temperature of 50.5 °C (122.9 °F) was recorded at Mardie Station on 19 February 1998. The lowest minimum temperature recorded was−7.2 °C (19.0 °F) at Eyre Bird Observatory on 17 August 2008. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan Climatic factors contribute to Australia's high incidence of bushfires, particularly during the summer months. Low relative humidity, wind and lack of rain can cause a small fire, either man-made or caused naturally by lightning strikes, to spread rapidly over large distances. Low humidity, the heat of the sun and lack of water cause vegetation to dry out becoming a perfect fuel for the fire. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan High winds fan the flames, increasing their intensity and the speed and distance at which they can travel.[44] Many of the worst bushfires in eastern Australia, such as the 1983 Ash Wednesday fires, accompany El Niño-Southern Oscillation events which tend to cause a warm, dry and windy climate.[45] The worst bushfires in Australian history occurred on Black Saturday in February 2009. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan The human death toll of the disaster was 173, and over 2000 homes were lost. Though Australia is generally dry and arid, a large portion of the country lives in the tropics. Rainfall in these areas is extremely heavy. With some are areas recording world record breaking rain, such as the mountains which lie to the south west of Cairns. HP 533736-001 CPU Fan Through La Niña years the eastern seaboard of Australia records above average rainfall usually creating damaging floods.The 2010–2011 La Nina system has broken many rainfall records in Australia, particularly in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, which have seen extensive flooding which has caused major damage to infrastructure and crops. IBM 13R2760 CPU Fan The central east area of Queensland, an area the size of Germany and France combined, was under water in 2010–2011. The estimated damage bill could reach into the billions. According to the majority of scientists, climate change is predicted by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)[47] to have significant effects on the climate of and extreme weather events in Australia. ACER LU.S040A.067 CPU Fan According to the Bureau of Meteorology, Australia’s annual mean temperature for 2009 was 0.90 °C (1.62 °F) above the 1961-90 average, making it the nation’s second warmest year since high-quality records began in 1910.[48] It is predicted that the Great Barrier Reef and reefs surrounding Lord Howe Island could be killed as a result of the rise in water temperature forecast by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. ACER LU.S050B.078 CPU Fan The Murray River, Darling River Coorong andMacquarie Marshes are all at risk from decreased rainfall from climate change.Coastal communities face risks from sea level rise, albeit over a long period of time based on current estimates of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. The Gold Coast, being built on sand and with many canal developments, could be considered particularly at risk. DELL Studio 1535 CPU Fan Suburbs of Sydney like Drummoyne and Concord on rivers like the Parramatta River face risks of inundation of low lying areas such as parks (such as Timbrell Park and Majors Bay Reserve) reclaimed from mudflats at the heads of bays, or massive expenses in rebuilding seawalls to higher levels. Currently, there are several environmental movements and campaigners advocating for action on climate change. HP Pavilion dv6736nr CPU Fan One such campaign is "The Big Switch", Australia's largest community climate change campaign. Drought in Australia is defined by rainfall over a three-month period being in the lowest ten percent of amounts having been recorded for that region in the past.[51] This definition takes into account that low rainfall is a relative term and rainfall deficiencies need to be compared to typical rainfall patterns including seasonal variations. HP Envy 15-1050ca CPU Fan Specifically drought in Australia is defined in relation to a rainfall deficiency of pastoral leases and is determined by decile analysis applied to a certain area.[52] Historical climatic records are now sufficiently reliable to profile climate variability taking into account expectations for regions.[53] State Governments are responsible for declaring a region drought affected and the declaration will take into account factors other than rainfall. HP Pavilion dv7-6100et CPU Fan Australia is affected by tropical cyclones which primarily occur between December and April but have developed in November and May, as well.[54] Cyclones over mainland Australia occur on average five to six times each year.[4] The region between Broome andExmouth are most prone to cyclones.[55] Tropical cyclones are known to bring destructive winds, heavy rain with flooding creating storm surges along the coast, causing inundation in low lying areas. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan The strongest Australian region cyclone was Cyclone Monica in 2006 which had wind gusts in excess of 350 km/h (220 mph). Cyclones can also move inland, decaying to a rain depression, which dump heavy rain in these areas and causing flooding.[56] The worst cyclones of Australia have caused billions of dollars of damage and many deaths. IBM 42W2403 CPU Fan Cyclone Tracy crossed directly over Darwin in 1974, 71 people were killed. Adjusted for inflation it was Australia's most damaging cyclone.[57] Cyclone Mahina in 1899 brought a storm surge to Far North Queensland reaching 13 m (43 ft) high, causing 400 deaths and making it the worst natural disaster to befall Australia.[58] ACER Aspire 9304WSMi CPU Fan Cyclone Larry struck North Queensland and passed over Innisfail in 2006 causing damages estimated at A$1.5 billion but no lives were lost. Cyclone Yasi caused severe flooding and had a total estimated cost of A$3.5 billion making it the second most costliest cyclone to strike Australia. Blizzards are not common in mainland Australia, but occur frequently in the Snowy Mountains in New South Wales and Victoria.HP 610773-001 CPU Fan When blizzards do occur, they can affect the Tasmanian Highlands and, particularly, Mount Wellington, which towers over the Tasmanian capital Hobart. Blizzards do not affect any major towns or cities, because there are no populated areas located in the mountains except for the ski resort towns of New South Wales and Victoria. A dust storm or sandstorm, a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions, IBM ThinkPad R50p 1830 CPU Fan arises when a gust front passes or when the wind force exceeds the threshold value where loose sand and dust are removed from the dry surface. Particles are transported by saltation and suspension, causing soil erosion from one place and deposition in another. The term sandstorm is usedmost often in the context of desert sandstorms, especially in the Sahara, IBM ThinkPad T61 8898 CPU Fan when, in addition to fine particles obscuring visibility, a considerable amount of larger sand particles moves closer to the surface. The term dust storm is more likely to be used when finer particles are blown long distances, especially when the dust storm affects urban areas. Environmental issues in Australia describes a number of environmental issues which affect theenvironment of Australia.IBM ThinkPad R50p 2889 CPU Fan There are a range of such issues, some of them relating to conservation in Australia while others, for example the deteriorating state of Murray-Darling Basin, have a direct and serious effect on human land use and the economy. Many human activities including the use of natural resources have a direct impact on the Australianenvironment. These issues are the primary concern of the environmental movement in Australia. IBM ThinkPad R50p 1830 CPU Fan Climate change is now a major political talking point in Australia in the last two decades. Persistent drought and resulting water restrictions during the first decade of the twenty-first century are an example of natural events attributed by the mainstream media to climate change.[1][2][3][4] Australia ranks within the top ten countries globally with respect to greenhouse gas emissions per capita.[5] IBM ThinkPad R50 1829 CPU Fan The current federal and state governments have all publicly stated their belief that climate change is being caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Vocal minority groups within the population campaign against mining and coal-fired power stations in Australia, and such demonstrations are widely reported by the mainstream media. Similarly, vocal minority groups concurrently oppose wind energy schemes, despite being 'carbon neutral', on the grounds of local visual an.IBM ThinkPad R50P CPU Fan d noise impact and concern for the currently high cost and low reliability of wind energy.[6][7][8] Despite the publication of the Garnaut report and the Green Paper on the proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, public belief in anthropogenic climate change has noticeably eroded following the leaking of e-mails from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit.[9][10] IBM Thinkpad W500 CPU Fan There is claimed to be a net benefit to Australia in stabilising greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at 450ppm CO2 eq[11] in line with the prevailing political stance. Public disagreement with this opinion is generally dismissed as expression of vested interests, for example from the coal industry. Australia is a major exporter and consumer of coal, the combustion of which liberates CO2Compaq Presario CQ41-206TU CPU Fan Consequently, in 2003 Australia was the eighth highest emitter of CO2gases per capita in the world liberating 16.5 tonnes per capita.[12] Australia is claimed to be one of the countries most at risk from climate change according to the Stern report. Most of Australia's demand for electricity depends upon coal-fired thermal generation,[13]  SONY Vaio VPC-EB4X1E/BQ CPU Fan owing to the plentiful indigenous coal supply, limited potential for hydro-electric generation and political unwillingness to exploit indigenous uranium resources (although Australia accounted for the world's second highest production of uranium in 2005 [14]) to fuel a 'carbon neutral' domestic nuclear energy program. Conservation in Australia is an issue of state and federal policy. HP G62-374CA CPU Fan Australia is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, with a large portion of species endemic to Australia. Preserving this wealth of biodiversity is important for future generations. A key conservation issue is the preservation of biodiversity, especially by protecting the remaining rainforests. The destruction of habitat by human activities, including land clearing, remains the major cause of biodiversity loss in Australia. HP Pavilion dv5-1203eg CPU Fan The importance of the Australian rainforests to the conservation movement is very high. Australia is the only western country to have large areas of rainforest intact. Forests provide timber, drugs, and food and should be managed to maximize the possible uses. Currently, there are a number of environmental movements and campaigners advocating for action on saving the environment, one such campaign is the Big Switch and I Love Earth. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan Land management issues including clearance of native vegetation, reafforestation of once-cleared areas, control of exotic weeds and pests, expansion of dryland salinity, and changed fire regimes. Intensification of resource use in sectors such as forestry, fisheries, and agriculture are widely reported to contribute to biodiversity loss in Australia. HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan Coastal and marine environments also have reduced biodiversity from reduced water quality caused by pollution and sediments arising from human settlements and agriculture. In central New South Wales where there are large plains of grassland, problems have risen from—unusual to say—lack of land clearing. HP 535766-001 CPU Fan The Daintree Rainforest, a tropical rainforest near Daintree, Queensland covering around 1200 square kilometres, is threatened by logging, development, mining and the effects of the high tourist numbers. Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan Over a hundred species of fauna are currently under serious threat of extinction. The plight of some of these species receives more attention than others and recently the focus of many conservation organisations has been the critically endangered Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat, the endangered Tasmanian Devil,[16] Northern Tiger Quoll, South Eastern Red-tailed Black Cockatoo, Southern Cassowary, Tasmanian Wedge-tailed Eagle, Leadbeater's Possum and Southern Corroboree frog. DELL R859C CPU Fan Australia has a poor record of conservation of native fauna. The extinction of Australian megafauna is attributed to the arrival of humans and since European settlement, 23 birds, 4 frogs, and 27 mammal species are also known to have become extinct. One of the notable issues with marine conservation in Australia is the protection of the Great Barrier Reef. Toshiba Satellite A105-S2101 CPU Fan The Great Barrier Reef's environmental pressures include water quality from runoff, climate change and mass coral bleaching, cyclic outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish, overfishing, and shipping accidents. While there have been no oil spill environmental disasters of the scale of the Exxon Valdez in the country, Australia has a large oil industry and there have been several large oil spills [1]. Spills remain a serious threat to the marine environment and Australian coastline. SONY Vaio VGN-FW140E CPU Fan The largest spill to date was the Kirki tanker in 1991 which dropped 17,280 tonnes of oil off the coast of Western Australia.In March 2009, the 2009 southeast Queensland oil spill occurred, where 200,000 litres were spilled from the MV Pacific Adventurer spilling more than 250 tonnes of oil, 30 tonnes of fuel and other toxic chemicals on Brisbane's suburban beaches.ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan Premier Anna Bligh described the spill as "worst environmental disaster Queensland has ever seen". A serious issue to the Australian marine environment is the dumping of rubbish from ships. There have been a number of cases,[19] particularly involving the navy of Australian and other countries polluting Australian waters including the dumping of chemical warfare agents. SONY Vaio VPC-EB4S1E/WI CPU Fan Recently documented cases include the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan in 2006 which was found to be dumping rubbish off the shores of Moreton Island.[20] In Victoria, a large number of toxic drums containing 1,2-Dichlorobenzene xylenol, a substance very toxic to aquatic creatures washed up on beaches during May 2009 presumably fallen off a passing container ship.HP Pavilion dv9580ed CPU Fan Australia's geographical isolation has resulted in the evolution of many delicate ecological relationships that are sensitive to foreign invaders and in many instances provided no natural predators for many of the species subsequently introduced. Introduced plants that have caused widespread problems are lantana and the prickly pear bush. HP 538340-001 CPU Fan The introduction and spread of animals such as the cane toad or rabbit can disrupt the existing balances between populations and develop into environmental problems. The introduction of cattle into Australia and to a lesser extent the dingo, are other examples of species that have changed the landscape. Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5934 CPU Fan In some cases the introduction of new species can lead to plagues and the extinction of endemic species. The introduced species red fox has single-handedly caused the extinction of several species. Tasmania takes the threat of red fox introduction so seriously that it has a government sponsored taskforce to prevent fox populations from taking hold on the island. SONY Vaio VGN-CR31S/P CPU Fan In the prehistory of Australia the indigenous Australians used fire-stick farming which was an early form of land clearing which caused long term changes to the ecology. With European colonisation land clearing continued on a larger scale for agriculture - particularly for cattle, cotton and wheat production. Since European settlement a total of 13% of native vegetation cover has been lost. HP Pavilion dv5-1210et CPU Fan The extinction of 20 different mammals, 9 bird and 97 plant species have been partially attributed to land clearing. Land clearing is a major source of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions, and contributed to approximately 12 percent of Australia’s total emissions in 1998. The consequences of land clearing include dryland salinity and soil erosion. These are a major concern to the landcare movement in Australia. SONY Vaio VGN-FW465J/B CPU Fan The clearing of native vegetation is controlled by Federal laws (indirectly), State law and local planning instruments. The precise details of regulation of vegetation clearing differ according to the location where clearing is proposed. Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world. Many Australian cities have large urban footprints and are characterised by an unsustainable low density urban sprawl. HP Envy 15 CPU Fan This places demand on infrastructure and services which contributes to the problems of land clearing, pollution, transport related emissions, energy consumption, invasive species,automobile dependency and urban heat islands. The urban sprawl continues to increase at a rapid rate in most Australian cities, particularly the state capital cities, all of which (with the exception of Hobart) are metropoleis. HP Pavilion dv7-1190er CPU Fan In some centres, such as Sydney and Greater Western Sydney,[22]Greater Melbourne[23] and South East Queensland[24] large metropolitan conurbations threaten to extend for hundreds of kilometres and based on current population growth rates are expected to become megacities in the 21st century. Most Australian cities population growth is a result of migration in contrast to the Birth rate and fertility rate in Australia, which is contributing to the ongoing trend of urbanisation. Toshiba Satellite A105-S4074 CPU Fan In recent years, some cities have implemented transit-oriented development strategies to curb the urban sprawl. Notable examples include Melbourne 2030,[25] South East Queensland Regional Plan and the Sydney Metropolitan Strategy. There are also population decentralisation programs at state and federal levels aimed at shifting populations out of the major centres and stemming the drivers to rapid urbanisation.  IBM MCF-208AM05-1 CPU Fan Albury-Wodonga was part of the federal government's program of decentralisation begun in the 1970s, which has at times had relocation policies for immigration. The Victorian government has run a decentralisation program since the 1960s, having had a ministerial position appointed and ongoing promotional and investment programs for stimulating growth in Regional Victoria.IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan  HP GB0507PGV1-A CPU Fan IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan However policy has swung over the decades, primarily due to local development priorities and agendas and a lack of federal co-ordination to the problem. The protection of waterways in Australia is a major concern for various reasons including habitat and biodiversity, but also due to use of the waterways by humans. The Murray-Darling Basin is under threat due to irrigation in Australia, causing high levels of salinity which affect agriculture and biodiversity in New South Wales, HP Pavilion dv6-3385la CPU Fan Victoria and South Australia. These rivers are also affected by pesticide run-off and drought. Sustainable waste management is significant problem in Australia, and serious issues include large quantities of e-waste and toxic waste going into landfill. Australia does not have restrictions on the dumping of toxic materials that are common in other countries, such as dumping Cathode Ray Tubes which leech heavy metals into water catchments. HP Pavilion tx2510us  CPU  Fan Due to the lack of sufficient sites for toxic waste disposal large quantities of toxic waste are trucked between states to remote dumping grounds or exported overseas in ships. HP G62-b55EV CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6-2145sf CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv7-1120ew CPU Fan

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