Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female human breasts (i.e., vialactation) rather than using infant formula. Babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and swallow milk. Experts recommend that children be breastfed within one hour of birth, exclusively breastfed for the first six months, and then breastfed until age two with age-appropriate, nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods.[ DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends for the U.S. that after 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, babies should continue to breastfeed "for a year and for as long as is mutually desired by the mother and baby".[6] Inadequate nutrition is an underlying cause of the deaths of more than 2.6 million children and over 100,000 mothers every year.[1] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan Some working mothers express milk to be used while their child is being cared for by others. Breastfeeding was the rule in ancient times up to recent human history, and babies were carried with the mother and fed as required. With 18th and 19th century industrialization in the Western world, mothers in many urban centers began dispensing with breastfeeding due to their work requirements. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan Breastfeeding declined significantly from 1900 to 1960, due to increasingly negative social attitudes towards the practice and the development of infant formula.[7] Under modern health care, human breast milk is considered the healthiest form of milk for babies.[8] From the 1960s onwards, breastfeeding experienced a revival which continues to the 2000s, though some negative attitudes towards the practice still remain. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan Breastfeeding promotes the health of both mother and infant and helps to prevent disease.[9][10][11] Longer breastfeeding has also been associated with better mental health through childhood and into adolescence.[12] Experts agree that breastfeeding is beneficial and have concerns about the effects of artificial formulas. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan Artificial feeding is associated with more deaths from diarrhea in infants in both developing and developed countries.[13] There are, however, a few exceptions, such as when the mother is taking certain drugs, has active untreated tuberculosis or is infected with human T-lymphotropic virus. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan TheWorld Health Organization recommends that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice should be promoted and supported by their maternal and child health services to best avoid HIV infection transmission from mother to child. In the Egyptian, Greek and Roman empires, women usually fed only their own children. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan However, breastfeeding began to be seen as something too common to be done by royalty, and wet nurses were employed to breastfeed the children of the royal families. This extended over time, particularly in western Europe, where noble women often made use of wet nurses. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan But lower class women breastfed their infants and used a wet nurse only if they were unable to feed their own infant. Attempts were made in 15th-century Europe to use cow or goat milk, but these attempts were not successful. In the 18th century, flour or cereal mixed with broth were introduced as substitutes for breastfeeding, but this did not have a favorable outcome either.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan During the early 1900s breastfeeding started to be viewed negatively by Western societies, especially in Canada and the USA. These societies considered it a low class and uncultured practice, viewing it with a certain degree of disgust.[14] This coincided with the appearance of improved infant formulas in the mid 19th century and its increased use, which accelerated after World War II. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan From the 1960s onwards, breastfeeding experienced a revival which continues to the 2000s, though negative attitudes towards the practice were still intrenched up to 1990s. The vast majority of mothers can and should breastfeed, just as the vast majority of infants can and should be breastfed. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan Only under exceptional circumstances can a mother’s milk be considered unsuitable for her infant. For those few health situations where infants cannot, or should not, be breastfed, the choice of the best alternative–expressed breast milk from an infant’s own mother, breast milk from a healthy wet-nurse or ahuman-milk bank, HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan or a breast-milk substitute fed with a cup, which is a safer method than a feeding bottle and teat–depends on individual circumstances.Exclusive breastfeeding (giving your baby breast milk only) is recommended for around the first six months (26 weeks) of your baby's life. After that, giving your baby breast milk alongside other food will help them continue to grow and develop. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan Any amount of breastfeeding has a positive effect. The longer you breastfeed, the longer the protection lasts and the greater the benefits.
Extensive research using improved epidemiologic methods and modern laboratory techniques documents diverse and compelling advantages for infants, mothers, families, and society from breastfeeding and use of human milk for infant feeding. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU FanThese advantages include health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychologic, social, economic, and environmental benefits.[17]
The AAP recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life.[17] Furthermore, "breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond for as long as mutually desired by mother and child." HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan According to the CDC, "The success rate among mothers who want to breastfeed can be greatly improved through active support from their families, friends, communities, clinicians, health care leaders, employers, and policymakers. Given the importance of breastfeeding for the health and well-being of mothers and children, it is critical that we take action across the country to support breastfeeding." HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan Not all the properties of breast milk are understood, but its nutrient content is relatively stable. Breast milk is made from nutrients in the mother's bloodstream and bodily stores. Breast milk has just the right amount of fat, sugar, water, andprotein that is needed for a baby's growth and development.[19] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan Because breastfeeding uses an average of 500 calories a day, it helps the mother lose weight after giving birth.[20] The composition of breast milk changes depending on how long the baby nurses at each session, as well as on the age of the child. The quality of a mother's breast milk may be compromised by smoking, alcoholic beverages, caffeinated drinks, marijuana,methamphetamine, heroin, and methadone.[21] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan However, the American Academy of Pediatrics states that "Tobacco smoking by mothers is not a contraindication to breastfeeding."[17] In addition, the AAP states that while breastfeeding mothers "should avoid the use of alcoholic beverages," an "occasional celebratory single, small alcoholic drink is acceptable, but breastfeeding should be avoided for 2 hours after the drink." HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan Scientific research, such as the studies summarized in a 2007 review for the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality(AHRQ)[22] and a 2007 review for the WHO,[23] have found numerous benefits of breastfeeding for the infant. According to theAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, research shows that breast feeding provides advantages with regard to general health, growth, and development. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan Not breastfeeding significantly increases risk for a large number of acute and chronic diseases including lower respiratory infection, ear infections, bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, botulism, urinary tract infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis.They state that there are a number of studies that show a possible protective effect of breast milk feeding against sudden infant death syndrome, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis,lymphoma, allergic diseases, digestive diseases, and a possible enhancement of cognitive development. During breastfeeding, approximately 0.25-0.5 grams per day of secretory IgA antibodies pass to the baby via the milk.[25][26]This is one of the most important features of colostrum, Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan the breast milk created for newborns.[27] The main target for these antibodies are probably microorganisms in the baby's intestine. There is some uptake of IgA to the rest of the body,[28] but this amount is relatively small.[29] Also, breast milk contains several anti-infective factors such as bile salt stimulated lipase (protecting against amoebic infections) and lactoferrin (which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria). ASUS F80Q CPU Fan Among the studies showing that non-breastfed infants have a higher risk of infection than breastfed infants are: In a 1993 University of Texas Medical Branch study, a longer period of breastfeeding was associated with a shorter duration of some middle ear infections (otitis media with effusion) in the first two years of life.[32] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan A 1995 study of 87 infants found that breastfed babies had half the incidence of diarrheal illness, 19% fewer cases of any otitis media (middle ear) infections, and 80% fewer prolonged cases of middle ear infections than formula fed babies in the first twelve months of life.[33] Breastfeeding appeared to reduce symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections in premature infants up to seven months after release from hospital in a 2002 study of 39 infants.[34] HP 434678-001 CPU Fan A 2004 case-control study found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acquiring urinary tract infections in infants up to seven months of age, with the protection strongest immediately after birth.The 2007 review for AHRQ found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acute otitis media, non-specific gastroenteritis, and severe lower respiratory tract infections. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan In a review article published in the journal Pediatrics, data from 2001 to 2012 were analyzed to discern any safety issue for mothers being vaccinated while breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) concludes that it is safe for women to receive almost all vaccines while nursing their infants. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan The study further found that the protected immunity of the mother obtained by vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough and influenza can pass on to the baby, and that breastfeeding can reduce fever rate after infant immunization. Exceptions are smallpox and yellow fever vaccines which increase the risk of infants developing vaccinia and encephalitis. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan In all other cases AAP recommends women continue breastfeeding after vaccination. Formula fed babies have worse arousal from sleep at 2–3 months. This coincides with the peak incidence of sudden infant death syndrome.A study conducted at the University of Münster found that formula feeding doubled the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in children up to the age of 1. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan Infants exclusively breastfed have less chance of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 than those with a shorter duration of breastfeeding and an earlier exposure to cow milk and solid foods.Breastfeeding also appears to protect against diabetes mellitus type 2, at least in part due to its effects on the child's weight. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan Breastfeeding for more than 6 months is an independent predictor of better mental health through childhood and adolescence according to a large 2009 study.[12]The more months children were breastfed the less likely they were to suffer from depression, delinquent behavior, attention issues and other psychological problems.[12] Breastfeeding also improves cognitive development according to a number of other studies. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan The beneficial effects seem to stem in large part from the unique composition of human milk which, compared to formula milk, has been shown to lead to improved motor and cognitive development in pre-term babies as well. Breastfeeding appears to reduce the risk of extreme obesity in children. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan The protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity is consistent, though small, across many studies, and appears to increase with the duration of breastfeeding. A study has also shown that infants who are bottle-fed in early infancy are more likely to empty the bottle or cup in late infancy than those who are breastfed. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan "Bottle-feeding, regardless of the type of milk, is distinct from feeding at the breast in its effect on infants' self-regulation of milk intake." According to the study, this may be due to one of three possible factors, including that when bottle feeding, parents may encourage an infant to finish the contents of the bottle whereas when breastfeeding, an infant naturally develops self-regulation of milk intake.[ HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan A study in Today's Pediatrics associates solid food given too early to Formula-fed babies before 4 months old will make them 6 times as likely to become obese by age 3. It does not happen if the babies were given solid foods with breast feeding. In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases (defined as at least one parent or sibling having atopy), HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan atopic syndrome can be prevented or delayed through exclusive breastfeeding for four months, though these benefits may not be present after four months of age.[48] However, the key factor may be the age at which non-breastmilk is introduced rather than duration of breastfeeding.[ Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan Atopic dermatitis, the most common form of eczema, can be reduced through exclusive breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks in individuals with a family history of atopy, but when breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks is combined with other foods incidents of eczema rise irrespective of family history. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acute inflammatory disease in the intestines of infants. Necrosis or death of intestinal tissue may follow. It is mainly found in premature births. In one study of 926 preterm infants, NEC developed in 51 infants (5.5%). The death rate from necrotizing enterocolitis was 26%. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan NEC was found to be six to ten times more common in infants fed formula exclusively, and three times more common in infants fed a mixture of breast milk and formula, compared with exclusive breastfeeding. In infants born at more than 30 weeks, NEC was twenty times more common in infants fed exclusively on formula.[ HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan A 2007 meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials found "a marginally statistically significant association" between breastfeeding and a reduction in the risk of NEC. Although one study showed no evidence that breastfeeding offers protection against allergies, another study showed a positive correlation between breastfeeding and a lower risk of asthma. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan This study also showed that breastfeeding protects against allergies, and respiratory and intestinal infections.A review of the association between breastfeeding and celiac disease (CD) concluded that breast feeding while introducing gluten to the diet reduced the risk of CD. The study was unable to determine if breastfeeding merely delayed symptoms or offered lifelong protection.[ Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan According to the findings of a study conducted at the University of Wisconsin, women who were breastfed as infants may have a lower risk of developing breast cancer than those who were not breastfed.Breastfeeding may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, as indicated by lower cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels in adult women who had been breastfed as infants. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan Although a 2001 study suggested that adults who had been breastfed as infants had lower arterial distensibility than adults who had not been breastfed as infants,[56] the 2007 review for the WHO concluded that breastfed infants "experienced lower mean blood pressure" later in life.[ DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan A 2007 review for the AHRQ found that "there is an association between a history of breastfeeding during infancy and a small reduction in adult blood pressure, but the clinical or public health implication of this finding is unclear".[22] A 2006 study found that breastfed babies are better able to cope with stress later in life.[57] HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan In a paper selected by UNICEF as the “Breastfeeding Paper of the Month” it was suggested that breastfed babies have a better chance of good dental health than artificially fed infants because of the effects of breastfeeding on the development of the oral cavity and airway. It was thought that with fewer malocclusions, breastfed children may have a reduced need for orthodontic intervention. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan The report also suggested that children with the proper development of a well rounded, "U-shaped" dental arch, which is found more commonly in breastfed children, may have fewer problems with snoring and sleep apnea in later life. Studies have examined whether breastfeeding in infants is associated with higher intelligence later in life. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan Possible association between breastfeeding and intelligence is not clear. The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "no relationship between breastfeeding in term infants and cognitive performance"[22] and in 2006, a prospective cohort study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis, concluded that "Breast feeding has little or no effect on intelligence in children."[5HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan The researchers found that "Most of the observed association between breast feeding and cognitive development is the result of confounding by maternal intelligence."[59] However a 2007 review for the World Health Organization "suggests that breastfeeding is associated with increased cognitive development in childhood." HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan The review also states that "The issue remains of whether the association is related to the properties of breastmilk itself, or whether breastfeeding enhances the bonding between mother and child, and thus contributes to intellectual development."A 2005 study using data on 2,734 sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health "provide[d] persuasive evidence of a causal connection between breastfeeding and intelligence."HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan In another study, cited as "the largest randomized trial ever conducted in the area of human lactation," between 1996 and 1997 maternity hospitals and polyclinics in Belarus were randomized to receive or not receive breastfeeding promotion modeled on the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative.[61] HP G62-244CA CPU Fan Of 13,889 infants born at these hospitals and polyclinics and followed up in 2002–2005, those who had been born in hospitals and polyclinics receiving breastfeeding promotion had IQs that were 2.9–7.5 points higher (which was significantly higher).[61] Since (among other reasons) a randomized trial should control for maternal IQ, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan the authors concluded in a 2008 paper that the data "provide strong evidence that prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development."[61] Further research in 2013 has supported this theory.[62] One 2013 imaging study indicated that breastfed children experience 15-34% enhanced brain white matter development. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan In 2007, A. Caspi et al. published a study “Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism.” The authors noted that there is currently agreement in the scientific community that both genetic and environmental factors effect specific traits rather than one or another. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan This fact inspired them to try to find a gene that mediates the well-researched phenomenon that children who are breast-fed have higher IQ. In their study they found that babies with a specific version of the FADS2 gene demonstrated an IQ averaging 7 points higher if breastfed, compared with babies with a less common version of the gene who showed no improvement when breastfed.[ HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan FADS2 affects the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in human breast milk, such asdocosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, which are known to be linked to early brain development.[64] The researchers said "Our findings support the idea that the nutritional content of breast milk accounts for the differences seen in human IQ. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan But it's not a simple all-or-none connection: it depends to some extent on the genetic makeup of each infant"[65] and, "further investigation to replicate and explain this specific gene–environment interaction is warranted."[64] However, an attempt to replicate this study in 5934 eight-year-old children failed: Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan No relationship of the common C allele to negative effects of formula feeding was apparent, and contra to the original report, the rare GG homozygote children performed worse when formula fed than other children on formula milk. Another study of over 700 families also criticized the Caspi et al. study. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan The study reported no evidence for either main or moderating effects of the original SNP (rs174575), nor of two additional FADS2 polymorphisms (rs1535 and rs174583), nor any effect of maternal FADS2 status on offspring IQ. Breastfeeding is a cost-effective way of feeding an infant, providing nourishment for a child at a small cost to the mother. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

No comments:

Post a Comment