Wednesday, November 27, 2013

The transmission of someviral diseases through breastfeeding

The transmission of someviral diseases through breastfeeding can be prevented by expressing breast milk and subjecting it to Holder pasteurisation. Predominant or mixed breastfeeding means feeding breast milk along with infant formula, baby food and even water, depending on the age of the child. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan Babies feed differently with artificial nipples than from a breast. With the breast, the infant's tongue massages the milk out rather than sucking, and the nipple does not go as far into the mouth; with an artificial nipple, an infant must suck harder and the milk may come in more rapidly. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan Therefore, mixing breastfeeding and bottle-feeding (or using a pacifier) before the baby is used to feeding from its mother can result in the infant preferring the bottle to the breast. Some mothers supplement feed with a small syringe or flexible cup to reduce the risk of artificial nipple preference. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan Feeding two children at the same time who are not twins or multiples is called tandem nursing. As the appetite and feeding habits of each baby may not be the same, this could mean feeding each according to their own individual needs and can also include breastfeeding them together, one on each breast. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan In cases of triplets or more, it is a challenge for a mother to organize feeding around the appetites of all the babies. Breasts can respond to the demand and produce large quantities of milk; mothers have been able to breastfeed triplets successfully. Tandem nursing occurs when a woman has a baby while breastfeeding an older child. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan During the late stages of pregnancy, the milk will change to colostrum, and some older nurslings will continue to feed even with this change, while others may wean due to the change in taste or drop in supply. Breastfeeding a child while being pregnant with another can also be considered a form of tandem feeding for the nursing mother, as she also provides the nutrition for two. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan It used to be common worldwide, and still is in some developing nations such as those found in Africa, for more than one woman to breastfeed a child. Shared breastfeeding has now been found to be a risk factor for HIV infection in infants.[134] A woman who is engaged to breastfeed another's baby is known as a wet nurse. Shared breastfeeding can sometimes incur negative reactions in the Anglosphere;[135] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan American feminist activist Jennifer Baumgardner has written about her experiences in New York with this issue. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the baby's first 6 months of life, and continued breastfeeding complemented with appropriate foods up to two years old and beyond.[ Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan According to a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the results of which were published in the journal Pediatrics, as of 2013 in the United States reliance on out-dated recommendations and considerations of convenience and cost sometimes resulted in inappropriate earlier attempts to switch to solid food.[138] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan In many Western countries, however, breastfeeding beyond the age of 1 year old is considered "extended breastfeeding". These movements in the West towards earlier weaning, however, are recent. Breastfeeding beyond the age of 1 year old was at one time a very common practice worldwide.[ ASUS G2P CPU Fan Dr. Martin Stein wrote in Parental Concerns about Extended Breastfeeding in a Toddler that "The discussion about extended nursing is similar to that of co-sleeping. They are both characteristics of child rearing that are closely linked to time and place. In most cultures before the 20th century, both practices were the norm. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan Changes in social, economic, and sexual expectations altered our views of the meaning of breastfeeding and bed sharing." Extended breastfeeding was encouraged in Ancient Greek, Hebrew, and Muslim cultures. The Koran, the Talmud, and the writings of Aristotle all recommend breastfeeding for 2 to 3 years.[140] DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan In Breastfeeding Beyond 6 Months: Mothers' Perceptions of the Negative and Positive Consequences, Dr. S. B. Reamer states that "Over the past 100 years of American history, the acceptance of unrestricted nursing decreased and the age acceptable for weaning dropped dramatically, until the average weaning age was 3 months in the 1970s." HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan In reaction to the move in the West towards earlier weaning, several organizations have been founded in Western countries to support mothers who practice extended breastfeeding. These organizations include the International Childbirth Education Association and La Leche League International.[141] Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan The US CDC recommends exclusive breastfeeding till six months of age. Their latest figures (2008) show that 76.9% of US women had ever breastfed but only 47.2% were still breastfeeding at six months and 25.5% at twelve months. Figures for exclusive breastfeeding at three months were 36% and at six months only 16.3%.Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan Women who are breastfeeding need to be careful about what they eat and drink, since things can be passed to the baby through the breast milk. Just like during pregnancy, breastfeeding women should avoid fish that are high in mercury, and limit lower mercury fish intake.[143] If a woman ingests alcohol, a small amount can be passed to the baby through breast milk. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan Alcohol-containing breastmilk has been shown to have a detrimental effect on motor development.[144] Caffeine intake should be kept to no more than 300 milligrams (about one to three cups of regular coffee) per day for breastfeeding women, as excess caffeine in breastmilk can cause irritability and restlessness in infants. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan When consumed in normal, everyday amounts, caffeine is considered to be compatible with breastfeeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics.[145] Nursing mothers concerned about the chemical bisphenol A, which has been shown to affect a childs health, should be aware that it can be passed to their baby though breast milk; SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan they may want to limit their dietary intake of certain foods and adjust their shopping habits to avoid as much exposure as possible. The average breastfed baby doubles its birth weight in 5–6 months. By one year, a typical breastfed baby will weigh about 2½ times its birth weight. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan At one year, breastfed babies tend to be leaner than formula fed babies, which is healthier, especially in the long-run. A general guide to the growth of breastfed babies is the following:Weight gain of 4–7 ounces (112–200 grams) a week during the first month,An average of 1–2 pounds (1/2 to 1 kilogram) per month for the first six months, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan An average of one pound (1/2 kilogram) per month from six months to one year,Babies usually grow in length by about an inch a month (2.5 cm) during the first six months, and around one-half inch a month from six months to one year. Weaning is the process of introducing the infant to other food and reducing the supply of breast milk. The infant is fully weaned when it no longer receives any breast milk. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan Most mammals stop producing the enzyme lactase at the end of weaning, and become lactose intolerant. Figures vary, but worldwide, humans lose about 75 to 95 percent of birth lactase levels by early childhood, and there is a continuous decline in lactase during the course of a lifetime. However, the prevalence varies widely among ethnic backgrounds. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan Estimates range from 2 to 5 percent in persons from Northern Europe to nearly 100 percent in adult Asians and American Indians. Blacks and Ashkenazi Jews have prevalences of 60 to 80 percent, and Latinos have a prevalence of 50 to 80 percent. In humans, the psychological factors involved in the weaning process are crucial for both mother and infant as issues of closeness and separation are very prominent during this stage. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan In the past bromocriptine was in some countries frequently used to reduce the engorgement experienced by many women during weaning. This is now done only in exceptional cases as it causes frequent side effects, offers very little advantage over non-medical management and the possibility of serious side effects can not be ruled out.[ Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan Other medications such as cabergoline, lisuride or birth control pills may occasionally be used as lactation suppressants. Elizabeth Baldwin says in Extended Breastfeeding and the Law, "Because our culture tends to view the breast as sexual, it can be hard for people to realize that breastfeeding is the natural way to nurture children."[153HP 535441-001 CPU Fan In Western countries such asThe United States of America, Canada, and Great Britain, extended breastfeeding is a taboo act. It is difficult to obtain accurate information and statistics about extended breastfeeding in these countries because of the mother's embarrassment. Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan Mothers who nurse longer than the social norm sometimes hide their practices from all but very close family members and friends. This is called "closet nursing".[141] In a study published by the Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 24% of American and Canadian mothers nursing past 6 months felt social hostility towards them. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan This number grew to 42% when mothers were nursing after 1 year of age. Also, 10% of mothers claimed embarrassment when more mobile, verbal toddlers made known in public the fact that they were nursed.[141] In the United States, breastfeeding beyond 1 year of age is considered 'extended breastfeeding, HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan and in contrast to WHO recommendations, the American Academy of Pediatrics stated in 1997 that, "Breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond for as long as mutually desired by mother and child".[ In the United States overall, according to a 2010 CDC "report card", 43% of babies are breastfed until 6 months and 22.4% are breastfed until 12 months, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan though breastfeeding rates varied among the states.[154] Breastfeeding rates in the U.S. at 6 months rose from 34.2% in 2000 to 43.5% in 2006 and the rates at 12 months rose from 15.7% in 2000 to 22.7% in 2006. The U.S. Healthy People 2010 goals were to have at least 60% of babies exclusively breastfed at 3 months and 25% of babies exclusively breastfed at 6 months so this goal has yet to be met.[155] Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan In the United States a study published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 75 percent of mothers began breastfeeding. However, by 6 months, the rate fell to 43% and was just 22% after a year. Breastfeeding rates vary across the country, from nearly 90 percent initiating breastfeeding in Utah to 52.5 percent in Mississippi. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan The health care law now requires large employers to provide breastfeeding mothers with breaks and a private space to feed their babies.There have been several cases in the United States where children have been taken away from their mother's care because American courts or government agencies found the mother's extended breastfeeding to be inappropriate. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan In 1992, a New York State mother lost custody of her child for a year. She was still breastfeeding the child at age 3 and had reported experiences of sexual arousal while breastfeeding the child. The authorities took the child from the home in the fear that the mother might sexually abuse the child. HP G60-230us CPU Fan Later, the social service agency that took over the case said that there was more to the case than could be released to the press due to confidentiality laws.[139] In 2000, an Illinois child was removed from the mother's care after a judge ruled that the child might suffer emotional damage because of not being weaned. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan The child was later returned to the mother and the judge vacated the finding of neglect.[139] A social service agency in Colorado removed a 5-year-old child from the mother because she was still breastfeeding, but the court ordered the child returned to its family immediately. In India, mothers commonly breastfed their children until 2 to 3 years of age. Cows milk is given in combination with breast milk though use of formula has been on the rise.[140] HP 535439-001 CPU Fan As of November 2012,[158] the Ministry of Women and Child Development, with UNICEF as a technical partner, have kicked off a nationwide campaign to promote exclusive breastfeeding to infants up to the age of six months - one among a series of advisories it is issuing - as part of an awareness program targeted at eradicating malnutrition in the country. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan Indian actor Aamir Khan serves as the brand ambassador, and has acted in numerous televised public service announcements. In the Philippines, the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Milk Code require that breastfeeding be encouraged for babies up to the age of 2 years old or beyond. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan Under the same code, it is prohibited to advertise infant formula or breastmilk substitutes intended for infants and young children 24 months old and below.[159] In practice, however, a 2008 WHO survey found that on average, mothers in the Philippines breastfed their babies until 14 months of age, with breastfeeding extending up to 17 months on average in rural areas. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan Almost fifty-eight percent of mothers surveyed around the nation were still breastfeeding their babies when the babies were a year old, and 34.2% of mothers were still breastfeeding when their babies were 2 years old.In 2012, it was reported that legislation had been introduced which would narrow down the application of the Milk Code DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan (reducing the period recommending against artificial baby foods for babies from 0 to 36 months to 0 to six months only), would lift the restriction on donations of artificial milk products in emergency situations (encouraging mothers who suffer from disabilities to shift to milk substitutes instead of encouraging them to continue breastfeeding assisted by support persons), SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan would change the legally mandated lactation break period for breastfeeding mothers from paid to unpaid status, and would remove the prohibition against milk companies giving away free samples of artificial milk products in the health care system. Priscilla Colletto stated in Beyond Toddlerhood: The Breastfeeding Relationship Continues, HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan "The adverse health effects of weaning a child before or during toddlerhood are well documented for Third World countries such as Guinea-Bissau, where children who were no longer breastfed at ages 12–35 months had a 3.5 times higher mortality rate than did their peers who continued to breastfeed."[ Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan Dr. Laurence Grummer-Strawn, widely known in the breastfeeding research and advocacy communities,[164] observed that breastfeeding is protective against diarrheal diseases and other infections and that breastfed children aged 12 to 36 months in Indonesia have much greater mid-arm circumference than children who have been weaned at an early age. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan He also noted that the incidence of malnourishment in breastfed Indonesian children is 3–5% less common than generally encountered in early-weened children. In one study, artificially fed infants had 2 to 3 times as many episodes of significant illnesses (defined as "otitis media, lower respiratory disease, significant vomiting or diarrhea, and any illness requiring hospital admission").[Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan In traditional human societies, the lack of nutrients missing in breast milk such as iron, zinc, and vitamin b12 was supplemented through premastication and feeding of meat to the child. In A Time to Wean, Katherine Dettwyler states that "Western, industrialized societies can compensate for some (but not all) of the immunological benefits of breastfeeding with antibiotics, Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan vaccines and improved sanitation. But the physical, cognitive, and emotional needs of the young child persist."Many children who are breast-fed into their toddler years use the milk as a comforting, bonding moment with their mothers. In a 1974 survey of 152 mothers, ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan 17% said that the security their toddlers obtained through extended breastfeeding helped them become more independent, 14% said that extended breastfeeding created a strong mother-child bond, and 14.6% said that extended breastfeeding strengthened their abilities as a mother. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan Four mothers said that they felt their child was too dependent and one mother considered her child a poor eater.[141] Dr. Stein said "A mother in my practice who breastfed 2 children until 2 years of age explained that she would slow down and give her undivided attention to her child several times each day when breastfeeding. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan Her children knew that she always had time for those moments each day. This time was also important to the mother for relaxing and unwinding.... For many nursing toddlers, the breast comes to serve the same function as a favorite blanket or stuffed animal in providing comfort and a sense of security." SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan One issue with extended breastfeeding is the ability of the mother and the child to separate. Some say that the desire for extended breastfeeding comes from the mother's inability to let go of "her baby".[140] Baldwin refutes this statement, saying that the child is the one who chooses when they are weaned, as it is very difficult to force a child to breastfeed. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan International board certified lactation consultants (IBCLCs) are an excellent source of assistance for breastfeeding mothers. IBCLCs are health care professionals certified in lactation management. They work with mothers to solve breastfeeding problems and educate families and health care professionals about the benefits of breastfeeding. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan Research shows that rates of exclusive breastfeeding and of any breastfeeding are higher among women who have had babies in hospitals with IBCLCs on staff. While breastfeeding is a natural human activity, difficulties and complications are not uncommon. Putting the baby to the breast as soon as possible after the birth helps to avoid many problems, including mastitis. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan The AAP breastfeeding policy says: "Delay weighing, measuring, bathing, needle-sticks, and eye prophylaxis until after the first feeding is completed."[17] Many breastfeeding difficulties can be resolved with proper hospital procedures, properly trained midwives, doctors and hospital staff, and lactation consultants.[170] Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan There are some situations in which breastfeeding may be harmful to the infant, including infection with HIV and acute poisoning by environmental contaminants such as lead.The Institute of Medicine has reported that breast surgery, including breast implants or breast reduction surgery, reduces the chances that a woman will have sufficient milk to breast feed. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan Research shows that women whose pregnancies are unintended are less likely to breast feed their babies. The majority of mothers intend to breastfeed when their baby is born. There are many things that happen that disrupt or intervene in this plan. Here are just a few of the barriers that women face when attempting to breastfeed. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan Birth procedures – routine separation of the baby from the mother, delayed breastfeeding initiation, vigorous routine suctioning, medications and mode of delivery all interfere with breastfeeding. A "substantial" number of hospital and facilities implemented procedures and policies that were not evidenced based and that were known to interfere with lactation.[ COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan Nursery policies – additional separation, rooming in policies, routine bottles and pacifiers can also prevent the baby from learning to latch and establishing a supply. About a quarter of all breastfeeding infants receive formula supplementation in the first two days of life.Ignorance Personal – breastfeeding is the biologic norm but in absence of watching others nurse their babies, Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan it is a lost art as well. Classes, books and personal counseling (professional or lay) can be beneficial. Some women do not want to breastfeed because they fear that breastfeeding will negatively impact the look of their breasts, although medical evidence attributes "drooping" or "sagging" of the breasts to pregnancy, aging, and smoking habits. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan Jae Ireland reports “the idea that breastfeeding causes saggier, smaller breasts is a myth, as proven by a 2008 study published in the Aesthetic Surgery Journal. The study found that while breastfeeding had no effect on a woman's breasts, other factors did contribute to sagginess, such as a mother's advanced age, her number of pregnancies and whether or not she smoked. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan All three factors can result in altered breasts, but breastfeeding was not identified as a marker for a change in overall breast appearance.”Partner – Partners also lack basic breastfeeding knowledge and are typically unsure of their role in breastfeeding.Practitioner – Physicians and nurses have surprisingly little training in lactation and lactation support. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan One of the main action items in The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding is to help educate practitioners about breastfeeding and breastfeeding issues. Workforce – Returning to work is the most common cited reason for discontinuing breastfeeding.Maternity leave in the US varies widely despite theFamily Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which provides most working mothers up to 12 weeks. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan Many mothers are forced to take unpaid time off from their job and the majority do not use FMLA for the full twelve weeks. Fathers are also allowed to use FMLA for the birth or adoption of the child. Maternity leave varies widely by state. Save the Children recently examined maternity leave laws, the right to nursing breaks at work, HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan and several other indicators to create a ranking of 36 industrialized countries measuring which ones have the most – and the least – supportive policies for women who want to breastfeed. Norway topped the scorecard and the United States came in last.Poor latch - Pain caused from mis-positioning the baby on the breast or a tongue-tie in the infant can cause great pain in the mother and therefore discourage her from breastfeeding. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan These problems are generally easy to correct (by re-positioning or clipping the tongue-tie). Researchers have found several social factors that correlate with differences in initiation, frequency, and duration of breastfeeding practices of mothers. Race, ethnic differences and socioeconomic status and other factors have been shown to affect a mother's choice whether or not to breastfeed, and how long she breastfeeds her child. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

No comments:

Post a Comment