Sunday, November 24, 2013

There are about 400 growers of stone fruit

There are about 400 growers of stone fruit who utilise 3000 hectares of land, mostly in the Hawke's Bay and Otago regions. Three quarters of the fruit produced is consumed domestically. Peaches, nectarines and plums are produced for domestic consumption, and apricots and cherries, almost all from Otago, are exported.[21] About 30 varieties of apples and pears are exported, ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan with over 16 million tray carton equivalents (18 kg) of apples and 300,000 tce's of pears exported in 2007. Most pipfruit is grown in the Hawke's Bay and Tasman regions, with about 10,000 hectares planted.[22] Kiwifruit is grown in many regions of the North Island and in the north of the South Island, but is most concentrated in the Bay of Plenty. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan There are 2,700 kiwifruit growers, with over 13,000 hectares planted. Over 80 million trays of kiwifruit were exported in 2006, about one-quarter of the world's production. Kiwifruit is New Zealand's largest horticultural export by value.[22] In 2007 there were over 29,0000 hectares planted in grapes (mostly in Marlborough, Hawke's Bay and Gisborne), 205,000 tonnes of grapes were produced, and there were 543 wineries.[22] ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan Citrus fruit is grown in Gisborne, Northland and Auckland. Blackcurrants and other berry fruits are grown in Tasman, Waikato, Canterbury and Auckland. Avocados and other subtropical fruits are grown in Northland and the Bay of Plenty.[22] Total exports of fresh fruit were worth NZD 1,200 million in 2007, and NZD 105 million of processed fruit was also exported. 76 million litres of wine, worth NZD 698 million, was exported. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan Almost all hay and silage is consumed on the same farm as it is produced. Most supplementary feed crops are grown in the South Island, where the colder climate forces additional feeding of stock during winter. Wheat is mostly grown in the Canterbury region and is used for domestic consumption in bread and biscuits. By-products are bran and pollard, which are used for stock feed. Barley is used for stock feed and for malt. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan Some barley is exported, depending on international price fluctuations. Maize is grown in the Waikato and Manawatu-Wanganui regions as feed for chickens, pigs and cattle. Oats are grown in Canterbury and Southland for animal feed, and for rolled oats and oatmeal.[21] Vegetable growing occupies more than 50,000 hectares of land and employs 25,000 people. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan More than 50 different vegetables are grown in New Zealand. Approximately 1,450 growers produce fresh vegetables with a value of over NZD 400 million in 2007. NZD 260 million of fresh vegetables, mainly onions and squash, were exported in 2007. 750 growers produce vegetables worth over NZD 100 million for processing, and NZD 297 of processed and frozen vegetables, mostly potatoes, sweetcorn and peas, were exported in 2007.[2HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan 1] NZD 63 million worth of seeds and bulbs, and NZD 43 million of cut flowers and foliage, were exported in 2007. Aquaculture started in New Zealand in the late 1960s and is dominated by mussels, oysters and salmon. In 2007, aquaculture generated about NZ$360 million in sales on an area of 7,700 hectares with a total of $240 million earned in exports. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan In 2006, the aquaculture industry in New Zealand developed a strategy aimed at achieving a sustainable annual billion NZ dollar business by 2025. In 2007, the government reacted by offering more support to the growing industry. New Zealand had 2,602 beekeepers at the end of 2007, who owned 313,399 hives. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan Total honey production was 9700 tonnes. Pollen, beeswax, and propolis are also produced. Beekeepers provide pollination services to horticulturalists, which generates more income than the products of bee culture. Approximately 20–25,000 queen bees, and 20 tonnes of packaged bees (which include worker bees and a queen) are exported live each year. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan Both the original Māori people and the European colonists made huge changes to New Zealand over a relatively short time. Māori burned forest to flush out gameand to encourage the growth of bracken fern, which was used as a food source, and practised agriculture using plants they brought from tropical Polynesia. The Europeans logged and burned off a third of the forest cover to convert land to pastoral farming. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan In 1993, the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research summarised available data on the quality of water in rivers. They concluded that "lowland river reaches in agriculturally developed catchments are in poor condition" reflecting "agriculturally derived diffuse and point source waste inputs in isolation or in addition to urban or industrial waste inputs" DELL yy529 CPU Fan The key contaminants identified in lowland rivers were dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved reactive phosphorus and faecal contamination. Small streams in dairy farming areas were identified as being in very poor condition.[25] New Zealand's rivers and lakes are becoming increasingly nutrient enriched and degraded by nitrogen, animal faecal matter, and eroded sediment.[26] HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan Many waterways are now unsafe for swimming. Fish and Game New Zealand launched a "dirty dairying" campaign to highlight the effect of intensive agriculture on waterways. Fonterra, the largest dairy company in New Zealand, in conjunction with government agencies responded with the Dairying and Clean Streams Accord. In 2009, HP G62-369TX CPU Fan the Crafar Farms group of dairy farms in the North Island became known as the 'poster boys for dirty dairying' after a string of prosecutions in the Environment Court for unlawful discharges of dairy effluent.[27][28] In 2004 the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment released a report on the environmental effects of farming in New Zealand.[29] HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan It noted that the trend was towards an increasing pressure on New Zealand's natural capital. Between 1994 and 2002 the number of dairy cows increased by 34% and the land area used grew by just 12% resulting in a more intensive land use. In the same period synthetic fertiliser use across all sectors grew by 21% and urea use grew by 160%. Almost half of the greenhouse gas emissions in New Zealand are due to the agricultural sector. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan A portion of this is due to methane from belching ruminants. Anagricultural emissions research levy was proposed, quickly becoming known as the "Fart Tax".[30] The proposed levy encountered opposition from the farming sector and the National Party, resulting in plans for the levy being abandoned. The Pastoral Greenhouse Gas Research Consortium was formed as an alternative to imposing the levy on farmers. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan The Common Brushtail Possum was introduced from Australia to establish a fur trade. It soon became one of New Zealand's most problematic invasive speciesbecause of the huge effect on the biodiversity of New Zealand as well affecting agricultural production since it is a vector for Bovine tuberculosis. The disease now endemic in possums across approximately 38 per cent of New Zealand (known as ‘vector risk areas’). HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan In these areas, nearly 70 per cent of new herd infections can be traced back to possums or ferrets. The Biosecurity Act 1993, which established a National Pest Management Strategy, is the legislation behind control of the disease in New Zealand. The Animal Health Board (AHB) operates a nationwide programme of cattle testing and possum control with the goal of eradicating M. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan bovis from wild vector species across 2.5 million hectares – or one quarter – of New Zealand’s at-risk areas by 2026 and, eventually, eradicating the disease entirely.[31] Possums are controlled through a combination of trapping, ground-baiting and, where other methods are impractical, aerial treament with 1080 poison.[32] IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan From 1979–1984, possum control was stopped due to lack of funding. In spite of regular and frequent TB testing of cattle herds, the number of infected herds snowballed and continued to increase until 1994.[33] The area of New Zealand where there were TB wild animals expanded from about 10 to 40 per cent. That possums are such effective transmitters of TB appears to be facilitated by their behaviour once they succumb to the disease.Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan Terminally ill TB possums will show increasingly erratic behaviour, such as venturing out during the daytime to get enough food to eat, and seeking out buildings in which to keep warm. As a consequence they may wander onto paddocks, where they naturally attract the attention of inquisitive cattle and deer. This behaviour has been captured on video.[34] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan The introduced Canada Geese became prolific and began to adversely affect pastures and crops. In 2011 restrictions on hunting them were dropped to allow them to be culled. Because of its geographical isolation New Zealand is free of some pest and diseases that are problematic for agricultural production in other countries. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan With a high level of international trade and large numbers of inbound tourists biosecurity is of great concern since new any pest or diseases brought into the country could potentially have a huge effect on the economy of New Zealand. There have been no outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in New Zealand. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan If an outbreak did occur there is potential for severe economic losses given that agricultural exports are a large segment of exports.[36] The main foot-and-mouth disease pathway is passenger arrivals and therefore there is an extensive biosecurity monitoring at ports and airports. There have been instances of suspected outbreaks of foot and mouth disease the most recent being on Waiheke Island, although this is thought to be a hoax. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan Many areas of the high country of the South Island were set up as large sheep and cattle stations in the late 19th century. Much of this land was leased fromThe Crown but after the passing of the Crown Pastoral Land Act 1998 the leases were reviewed. Environmentalists and academics raised concerns about the process saying that farmers were gaining an advantage and that conservation issues were not being resolved. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan A fixture in many rural towns is the annual Agricultural and Pastoral (A&P) shows[37] where competitions are held for the best livestock and farm produce. Carnivals, sideshows, equestrian events and craft competitions are also held as part of the A&P shows.The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is the government agency responsible for the agricultural sector. It has both policy and operational arms. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan Federated Farmers is a large and influential lobby group that represents farmers interests. It has a voluntary membership which stands at over 26,000.The Soil & Health Association of New Zealand, established in 1941, promotes organic food and farming.The New Zealand Young Farmers is a national organisation formed in 1927 with regional clubs throughout the country. It runs the annual Young Farmer Contest. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan Irrigation New Zealand is the national body representing farmers who use irrigation and the irrigation industry. It opposes Water conservation orders. There are two main views on the immediate future of New Zealand agriculture. One is that, due to fast-rising consumer demand in India and China, the world is entering a golden age for commodities, and New Zealand is well placed to take advantage of this. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan The other view is that New Zealand will only gain limited rewards from this boom because of increasing production competition from developing countries. For New Zealand to remain competitive, farmers will either have to intensify production to remain commodity producers (increasing stock and fertiliser per hectare) or, instead, become producers of higher value, more customised products. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan AgResearch Ltd (New Zealand's largest Crown Research Institute) believes that new technologies will allow New Zealand farmers to double their output by 2020, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and other detrimental environmental impacts associated with farming practices. Transport in New Zealand, with its mountainous topography and a relatively small population mostly located near its long coastline, ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan has always faced many challenges. Before Europeans arrived, Māori either walked or used watercraft on rivers or along the coasts. Later on, European shipping and railways revolutionised the way of transporting goods and people, before being themselves overtaken by road and air, which are nowadays the dominant forms of transport. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan However, bulk freight still continues to be transported by coastal shipping and by rail transport, and there are attempts to (re)introduce public transport as a major transport mode in the larger population centres. Historically very car-dependent, as of 2010, transport funding in New Zealand is still heavily dominated by money for road projects – the National government proposes to spend $21 billion on roading infrastructure after 2012, ASUS F80S CPU Fan yet only $0.7 billion on other transport projects (public transport, walking and cycling). This has been criticised by opponents of the current government strategy as irresponsible, in light of increasing fuel prices and congestion.[1] Government has claimed that their priority on roads is in line with New Zealanders' favoured travel modes, and as being the most promising in terms of economic benefits. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan The State Highway network is the principal road infrastructure connecting New Zealand urban centres. It is administered by the New Zealand Transport Agency. The majority of smaller or urban roads are managed by city or district councils, although some are fall under the control of other authorities, such as the New Zealand Department of Conservation or port and airport authorities. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan Before Europeans arrived, Māori either walked or used watercraft on rivers or along the coasts. The road network of New Zealand has its origins in these tracks and paths used by Māori and later by Europeans in their early travels through New Zealand. Several major Māori tracks were known, such as the western coastal track was used along the whole length of the North Island, and the track on the East Coast, IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan which however left the coast near Castlepoint and rejoined it near Napier. In the South Island, another major track existed down the east coast with tributary tracks following streams up to the mountain passes to the West Coast.[2] Initial roads, such as the Great South Road southwards from Auckland, were often built by the British Army to move troops, and were constructed to a comparatively high standard.[2] IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan Early sheep farming required few high-standard roads, but the strong increase in dairy farming in the late 19th century created a strong demand for better links on which the more perishable goods could be transported to market or towards ports for export.[2] In many cases, later roads for motor vehicles follow paths used by bullock carts[3] which followed tracks made for humans.HP 535438-001 CPU Fan These in turn in some cases became highways – with attendant problems all over New Zealand (but especially in the more mountainous regions), as the geography and contours of a slow-speed road laid out in the first half of the 20th century usually do not conform to safety and comfort criteria of modern motor vehicles.[4] Early road construction was both hindered and helped by rail transport during the first half century of European settlement.DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan Authorities were reluctant to expend large amounts of capital on more difficult sections of a route where there was a hope that a railway might instead be built. However, where railways were constructed, roads often either preceded them for construction or quickly followed it when the newly accessible land started to be settled more closely.[2] HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan The New Zealand Highway system was extended massively after World War II. The first motorway was built in the environs of Wellington and opened in 1950, between Takapu Road and Johnsonville.[5] Following heavy investment in road construction from the 1950s onwards, public transport patronage fell nationwide. This has been described, in Auckland's case, as "one of the most spectacular declines in public transport patronage of any developed city in the world".IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan New Zealand has a State Highway network of 10,895 km (5,974 km in the North Island and 4,921 km in the South Island, as of August 2006) of which 170 km are motorways. These link to 82,000 km of local authority roads, both paved and unpaved. The state highways carry 50% of all New Zealand road traffic, with the motorways alone carrying 9% of all traffic (even though they represent only 3% of the whole State Highway network, and even less of the whole road network). ASUS A8H CPU Fan The maximum speed limit on the open road is 100 km/h, with 50 km/h the common limit in residential areas. Speed limits of 60, 70, and 80 km/h are also used. Speeds are often reduced to 30 km/h beside roadworks. The Land Transport Rule: Setting of Speed Limits (2003) allows road controlling authorities to set enforceable speed limits, including permanent speed limits, of less than 50 km/h on roads within their jurisdiction. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan However, there are still very few areas of the country's road network with permanent speed limits below 50 km/h. Total road deaths in New Zealand are high by developed country standards. 2010 figures from the International Transport Forum placed New Zealand 25th out of 33 surveyed countries in terms of road deaths per capita, a rank that has changed little in 30 years.[9] HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan The fatality rate per capita is twice the level of Germany's, or that of the United Kingdom, Sweden or the Netherlands (2010 comparison).[10] This is variously blamed on aggressive driving, insufficient driver training, old and unsafe cars, inferior road design and construction, and a lack of appreciation of the skill and responsibility required to safely operate a motor vehicle.[9][11] APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan In 2010, 375 'road users' were killed in New Zealand, while 14,031 were injured, with 15–24 year olds the group at highest risk. The three most common vehicle movements resulting in death or injury were "head-on collisions (while not overtaking)", "loss of control (on straight)" and "loss of control (while cornering)".[12] In terms of deaths per 10,000 population, HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan the most dangerous areas were the Waitomo District (121 deaths) and the Mackenzie District (110). Larger cities were comparatively safe, with Auckland City (28), Wellington (22) and Christchurch (28), while Dunedin had a higher rate of 43.[13] New Zealand has a large number of overseas drivers (tourists, business, students and new immigrants), as well as renting campervans/motorhomes/RV's during the New Zealand summer. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan Overseas licensed drivers are significantly more likely to be found at fault in a collision in which they are involved (66.9%), compared to fully licenced New Zealand drivers (51.9%), and only slightly less likely to be found at fault than restricted (novice) New Zealand drivers (68.9%).[14] Drunk driving is a major issue in New Zealand, especially among young drivers. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan New Zealand has relatively low penalties for drunk driving. In the late 2000s, reports indicated that the rate of drunk driving by under 20s in Auckland had risen 77% in three years, with similar increases in the rest of the country. Many drunk drivers already had convictions for previous drunk driving.[15] The road toll has decreased over the 5 years from 421 in 2007 to 284 in 2011[16] SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan In the 'Safer Journeys' Strategy, intended to guide road safety developments between 2010 and 2020, the Ministry of Transport aims for a 'safe systems' approach, prioritised four areas, being "Increasing the safety of young drivers", "Reducing alcohol/drug impaired driving", "Safe roads and roadsides" and "Increasing the safety of motorcycling".HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan Historically, most roads in New Zealand were funded by local road authorities (often road boards) who derived their income from local rates. As the need for new roads was often most urgent in those parts of the country where little rate income could yet be collected, the funding was at least partly dependent on national-level subsidies, for which much lobbying was undertaken.[2] SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan Many acts and ordinances were passed in the first decades of the colony, but lack of funds and parochialism (the desire to spend locally raised money locally, rather than use it to link different provinces) hindered the growth of the road network. This lack of larger-scale planning eventually led to increased public works powers given to the Central Government.[17] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan Today, all funding for state highways and around 50% of funding for local roads comes directly from road users through the National Land Transport Fund. Road user revenue directed to the fund includes all fuel excise duty on LPG and CNG, around 55% of revenue from fuel excise duty on petrol, all revenue from road user charges (a prepaid distance/weight licence that all vehicles over 3.5 tonnes, HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan and all non petrol/LPG/CNG vehicles are liable to pay) and most non-ACCrevenue from motor vehicle registration and licensing fees. In addition, in the last three years the government has increasing allocated additional funds to land transport, to the extent that today the total expenditure by the New Zealand Transport Agency on land transport projects exceeds road tax revenue collected.[when? SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan The remainder of funding for local city and district roads primarily comes from local authority property rates. As of 2010, transport funding in New Zealand is still heavily biased towards road projects – the National government proposes to spend $21 billion on roading infrastructure after 2012, yet only $0.7 billion on other transport projects (public transport, walking and cycling). SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan This has been criticised by opponents of the current government strategy as irresponsible, in light of increasing fuel prices and congestion.[1] Government has claimed that their priority on roads is in line with New Zealanders' favoured travel modes, and as being the most promising in terms of economic benefits. One of the earliest counts/estimates of motor vehicles in New Zealand had them at 82,000 in 1925. Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan This soon increased to 170,000 on the eve of World War II in 1939, continuing to 425,000 in 1953 and increasing to 1,000,000 in 1971.[18] Today, the New Zealand vehicle fleet (as of December 2011) counts 3.24 million vehicles. Of the fleet, 2.60 million were light passenger vehicles, 0.38 million were light commercial vehicles, 0.11 million were trucks, .08 million were buses and .11 million were motorcycles and mopeds. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan The mean age of a New Zealand car (as of end of 2011) was 13.2 years, with trucks at 15.1 years.[19] Just over half of the light passenger vehicles first registered in New Zealand are used imports. In 2011, 86,703 such vehicles were registered, compared to 84,593 brand new vehicles first registered in New Zealand. Transport by bus services form the main component of public transport services in New Zealand cities, ASUS G2P CPU Fan and the country also has a network of long-distance bus orcoach services, augmented by door-to-door inter-city shuttle vans, a type of shared taxi. The first widespread motor vehicle services were shared taxi services termed service cars; a significant early provider was Aard, operating elongated Hudson Super-Six Coaches.[20] Aard was taken over by New Zealand Railways Road Services in 1928,[20]Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan The road fleet of New Zealand Railways Corporation was privatisedin 1991[with the long-distance business still existing as Intercity, having more recently incorporated Newmans Coachlines. Another former extensive coach business was Mount Cook Landlines, which closed in the 1990s. Internet-based is building another nationwide network, partly as a reseller of several smaller bus operators' capacity. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan While relatively popular for sport and recreation, bicycle use is a very marginal commuting mode, with the percentage share hovering around 1% in many major cities, and around 2% nationwide (2000s figures). This is primarily due to safety fears. For instance Auckland Regional Transport Authority reports that “over half of Aucklanders believe it is usually unsafe, or always unsafe, to cycle”.[23] HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan The high risk to bicycle users is due to a number of factors. Motorists tend to exhibit hostile attitudes towards bicycle riders.[24] Bicycles are classed as 'vehicles', a transport class legally obliged to use the road, forcing bicycle users to mingle with heavy and fast-moving motor vehicles; only postal workers are legally permitted to ride on footpaths.[25] Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan Bicycle infrastructure and the standards underpinning bicycle infrastructure planning are poor and bicycles receive relatively very low levels of funding by both central and local government.[26] It has also been argued that the introduction of New Zealand's compulsory bicycle helmet law contributed to the decline in the popularity of cycling. There is a total of 3,898 km of railway line in New Zealand, built to the narrow gauge of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in). Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan Of this, 506 km is electrified. The national network is owned by state-owned enterprise New Zealand Railways Corporation divisionKiwiRail Network. The national network consists of three main trunk lines, seven secondary main lines and during its peak in the 1950s, around ninety branch lines. The majority of the latter are now closed. Most lines were constructed by government but a few were of private origin, later nationalised. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

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