Monday, November 11, 2013
During the 19th century, large areas
During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the colonies of Tasmania (established as a separate colony named Van Diemen's Land in 1825), South Australia (1836), New Zealand (1840), Victoria (1851) and Queensland (1859). The Swan River Colony (present-day city of Perth) was established in Western Australia in 1829. SONY Vaio VPC-EA46FM/B CPU Fan On Federation, the six colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania became original states of the new Commonwealth of Australia. Legislative powers of the States are protected by the Australian constitution, and under the principle of federalism Commonwealth legislation only applies to the states where permitted by the constitution. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XL CPU Fan The territories, by contrast, are from a constitutional perspective directly subject to the Commonwealth government. The Australian Parliament has powers to legislate in the territories that it does not possess in the states. Most of the territories are directly administered by the Commonwealth Government, while three (the Northern Territory, the Australian Capital Territory and Norfolk Island) administer themselves. HP Mini 110-3000sd CPU Fan In the self-governing territories, the Australian Parliament retains the full power to legislate, and can override laws made by the territorial institutions, which it has done on rare occasions. For the purposes of Australian (and joint Australia-New Zealand) intergovernmental bodies, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory are treated as states. HP Pavilion dv7-3162nr CPU Fan Furthermore, the distribution of powers between the Commonwealth and the territories is different from that between the Commonwealth and the states. In the Northern Territory, the Commonwealth retains the power to directly administer uranium mining and Aboriginal lands – powers which it does not possess with respect to the states. HP 480481-001 CPU Fan Each state has a Governor, appointed by the Queen, which by convention she does on the advice of the state Premier. The Administrators of the Northern Territory and Norfolk Island are, by contrast, appointed by the Governor-General. The Australian Capital Territory has neither a Governor nor an Administrator, but the Governor-General exercises some powers that in other jurisdictions are exercised by the Governor of a state or Administrator of a territory, such as the power to dissolve the Legislative Assembly. HP 622029-001 CPU Fan Jervis Bay Territory is unique in being the only non-self-governing territory that was an internal territory. Until 1989, it was administered as if it were a part of the ACT, although it has always been a separate territory. Under the terms of the Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act, the laws of the ACT apply to the Jervis Bay Territory insofar as they are applicable and providing they are not inconsistent with an Ordinance. Toshiba Satellite L555-12P CPU Fan Although residents of the Jervis Bay Territory are generally subject to laws made by the ACT Legislative Assembly, they are not represented in the Assembly. They are represented in the Parliament of Australia as part of the Electoral Division of Fraser in the ACT and by the ACT's two Senators. In other respects, the territory is administered directly by the Federal Government through the Territories portfolio. HP GB0507PGV1-A CPU Fan Each state has a bicameral parliament except Queensland, which abolished its upper house in 1922. The lower house is called the Legislative Assembly, except in South Australia and Tasmania, where it is called the House of Assembly. Tasmania is the only state to use proportional representation for elections to its lower house; all others elect members from single member constituencies, using preferential voting. SONY Vaio VGN-AR21B CPU Fan The upper house is called the Legislative Council and is generally elected from multi-member constituencies using proportional representation. The three self-governing territories, the ACT, the Northern Territory, and Norfolk Island, have unicameral Legislative Assemblies. The head of government of each state is called the Premier, appointed by the state's Governor. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1E/PI CPU Fan In normal circumstances, the Governor will appoint as Premier whoever leads the party or coalition which exercises control of the lower house (in the case of Queensland, the only house) of the state Parliament. However, in times of constitutional crisis, the Governor can appoint someone else as Premier. The head of government of the self-governing internal territories is called the Chief Minister. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1E/WI CPU Fan The Northern Territory's Chief Minister, in normal circumstances whoever controls the Legislative Assembly, is appointed by the Administrator. The climate of Australia varies widely due to its large geographical size, but by far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid. Only the south-east and south-west corners have atemperate climate and moderately fertile soil. SONY Vaio VGN-FS660/W CPU Fan The northern part of the country has a tropical climate, varied between tropical rainforests, grasslands, part desert. Australia's climate is ruled by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt which moves north and south with the seasons. This causes the rainfall pattern over Australia to be highly seasonal. HP Pavilion G61-631NR CPU Fan Australia's rainfall is the lowest of the seven continents (besides Antarctica). Rainfall is variable, with frequent droughts lasting several seasons and is thought to be caused in part by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Since it is a small continent separated from polar regions by the Southern Ocean, Australia does not get the harsh snaps of polar air that swarm over Northern Hemisphere continents during winter. HP Pavilion dv6560el CPU Fan The continents in the Northern Hemisphere have a considerable temperature contrast between summer and winter, whereas in Australia the temperature contrast is small. In many parts of the country, seasonal high and lows can be great with temperatures ranging from above 50 °C (122 °F) to well below zero. Minimum temperatures are moderated by the lack of mountains and the influence of surrounding oceans. HP Pavilion dv6-2128ca CPU Fan The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is associated to seasonal abnormality in many areas in the world, though Australia is one of the most affected continents, which experiences extensive droughtsalongside with considerable wet periods. Occasionally a dust storm will blanket a region and there are reports of the occasional tornado. Tropical cyclones, heat waves, bushfires and frosts in the country are also associated to the Southern Oscillation. HP Pavilion dv7-3004el CPU Fan Rising levels of salinity anddesertification in some areas is ravaging the landscape. Temperatures in Australia have followed an increasing trend between the years of 1910 to 2004 by approximately 0.7°C. Overnight minimum temperatures have warmed more rapidly than daytime maximum temperatures in recent years. The late-20th century warming has been largely attributed to the increased greenhouse effect. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan  According to the Bureau of Meteorology, 80% of the land have a rainfall less than 600 mm (24 in) per year and 50% having even less than 300 mm (12 in). As a whole, Australia has an annual average rainfall of 419 mm (16 in). The rainfall patterns across Australia are highly seasonal. It however rains more in winter than in summer by approximately 11%, and compared to the Earth's other continental landmasses Australia is very dry. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan More than 80% of the continent has an annual rainfall of less than 600 mm (24 in); only Antarctica receives less rainfall than Australia. A place inland near Lake Eyre (in South Australia) would only receive 81 mm (3 in) of rain annually. Another place,Troudaninna Bore (coordinates : 29° 11' 44" S, 138° 59' 28" E, altitude : 46 m) in South Australia, from 1893 to 1936, received, in average, 104.9 mm (4.13 inches) of precipitation. HP Pavilion dv5-1172el CPU Fan From one extreme to another, parts of the far North Queensland coast annually average over 4,000 mm (157 in), with the Australian annual record being 12,461 mm (491 in), set at the summit of Mount Bellenden Ker in 2000. The average annual rainfall in the Australian desert is low, ranging from 81 to 250 mm (3 to 10 in) per year. Toshiba Satellite A105-S4084 CPU Fan Thunderstorms are relatively common in the region, with an average of 15 - 20 thunderstorms per annum. Summer daytime temperatures range from 32 to 40 °C (90 to 104 °F). In winter, this falls to 18 to 23 °C (64 to 73 °F). The southern parts of Australia get the usual westerly winds and cold fronts that come with rain when the high pressure systems move towards northern Australian during winter. HP Pavilion dv4-1038tx CPU Fan Cold snaps may bring frosts inland, though temperatures near the coast are almost mild all year round. Summers in southern Australia are generally dry and hot with coastal sea breezes. During a lengthy dry spell, hot and dry winds from the interior can cause bushfires in some of southern and eastern states, though most commonly Victoria and New South Wales. HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb CPU Fan The tropical areas of northern Australia have a wet summer because of monsoon presence. During "the wet", typically October to April, humid north-westerly winds bring showers and thunderstorms. In occasional cases, tropical cyclones can bring heavy rainfall to tropical coastal regions, which are also likely to reach further inland. After the monsoonal season, the dry season comes ("winter"), which mostly brings clear skies and mild conditions. HP Pavilion dv7-6055sf CPU Fan Low rate of evaporation from this very cool body of water result in little evaporation occurring. As a result, rain clouds are sparsely formed and very rarely do they form long enough for a continuous period of rain to be recorded. Australia's arid/semi-arid zone extends to this region. The absence of any significant mountain range or area of substantial height above sea level, results in very little rainfall caused by orographic uplift. SONY VGN-CS108D CPU Fan In the east the Great Dividing Rangelimits rain moving into inland Australia. Australia has a compact shape and no significant bodies of water penetrate very far inland. This is important because it means that moist winds are prevented from penetrating to inland Australia, keeping rainfall low. In Australia, snow falls on the highlands near the east coast, in the states of Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory. DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan There is a regular snow season in several areas which have seasonal ski tourism industries. Sometimes snow has even been reported in the mountains of South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland, though this is rare. Snow at sea level is occasionally recorded on mainland Australia, but is more frequent in Tasmania where snowfalls at sea level can occur during the winter months. Snow has been recorded across most of Tasmania, HP Pavilion G72-b15SV CPU Fan though it is rare on the northern coast at sea level. Snow is rare in the southernmost capitals like Melbourne and Hobart, falling less than once every ten years, and in the other capitals it is unknown (however snow has fallen in the hill suburbs of Perth and Adelaide). However, there are extensive, well-developed ski fields in the Great Dividing Range, a few hours' drive from Melbourne and Sydney. HP G62-120ES CPU Fan The occasional cold snap, caused by cold air drifting north from Antarctica, can cause significant snowfall in rural areas, as well as major cities such as Hobart, Melbourne's outer mountain suburbs and Canberra. Such occasions are rare, but have occurred in 1951, 1986 and 2005. Because of its elevation (650 m (2,130 ft)) and distance from the coast, HP Pavilion dv6-3034ss CPU Fan the Australian Capital Territory experiences a continental climate, unlike many other Australian cities whose climates are moderated by the sea. Canberra is notorious for hot, dry summers, and cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Many of the higher mountains in the territory’s south-west are snow-covered for at least part of the winter. HP Pavilion dv7-3165ef CPU Fan Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is 623 mm (25 in), with rainfall highest in spring and summer and lowest in winter The highest maximum temperature recorded in the ACT was 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) at Acton on 11 January 1939. The lowest minimum temperature was −14.6 °C (5.7 °F)at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971. HP X16-1000 Series CPU Fan Over half of New South Wales has an arid or semi-arid climate. However, the eastern portion has a temperate climate, ranging from humid subtropical to theCentral Coast and most of Sydney, and oceanic to the south coast. The Snowy Mountains region in the south-east falls in the alpine climate/highland climate zone, with cool to cold weather all year around and snowfalls in the winter. IBM ThinkPad Z61m CPU Fan Further inland, the climate gets semi-arid and a desert climate towards the western part of the state. The weather in the south of the state is generally hot in summer and cool in the winter as the seasons are well-defined in the south. The hottest New South Wales Climate region is the north-west part of the state, seasons are not well-defined in the north, where summers are hot and can be wet and winters are cooler and drier. ACER Aspire One D250 CPU Fan The coldest region is the Snowy Mountains where the snow and frost continues for quite long durations during the winter months.The highest maximum temperature recorded was 49.8 °C (121.6 °F) at Menindee in the state's west on 10 January 1939. The lowest minimum temperature was −23 °C(−9.4 °F) at Charlotte Pass on 29 June 1994 in the Snowy Mountains. ACER Ferrari 4000 CPU Fan This is also the lowest temperature recorded in the whole of Australia excluding Australian Antarctic Territory. Rainfall varies throughout the state. The far north-west receives the least, less than 180 mm (7 in) annually, while the east receives between 600 to 1,200 mm (24 to 47 in) of rain. The Northern Territory has two distinctive climate zones. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan The northern end, including Darwin, has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) with high humidity and two seasons, the wet (November to April) and dry season (May to October). During the dry season nearly every day is warm and sunny, and afternoon humidity averages around 30%. There is very little rainfall between May and September. Toshiba Satellite L350-146 CPU Fan In the coolest months of June and July, the daily minimum temperature may dip as low as 14 °C (57 °F), but very rarely lower, and frost has never been recorded.The wet season is associated with tropical cyclones and monsoon rains. The majority of rainfall occurs between December and March (the Southern Hemisphere summer), when thunderstorms are common and afternoon relative humidity averages over 70% during the wettest months. HP Pavilion dv7-3131ez CPU Fan On average more than 1,570 mm (62 in) of rain falls in the north. Thunderstorms can produce spectacular lightning displaysThe central region is the desert centre of the country, which includes Alice Springs and Uluru, and is semi-arid with little rain usually falling during the hottest months from October to March. Central Australia receives less than 250 mm (10 in) of rain per year. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan The highest maximum temperature recorded in the territory was 48.3 °C (118.9 °F) at Finke on 1 and 2 January 1960. The lowest minimum temperature was −7.5 °C(18.5 °F) at Alice Springs on 12 July 1976. Because of its size, there is significant variation in climate across the state. Low rainfall and hot summers are typical for the inland west, a monsoonal 'wet' season in the far north, and warm temperate conditions along the coastal strip. SONY Vaio VGN-CR23/N CPU Fan Inland and in southern ranges low minimum temperatures are experienced. The climate of the coastal strip is influenced by warm ocean waters, keeping the region free from extremes of temperature and providing moisture for rainfall.However, most of the Queensland populace experience two weather seasons: a "winter" period of rather warm temperatures and minimal rainfall and a sultry summer period of hot, sticky temperatures and higher levels of rainfall. HP Pavilion dv6-3043tx CPU Fan The highest maximum temperature observed in the state is 49.5 °C (121.1 °F) at Birdsville on 24 December 1972. The temperature of 53.1 °C (127.6 °F) atCloncurry on 16 January 1889 is not considered official; the figure quoted from Birdsville is the next highest, so that record is considered as being official. The lowest minimum temperature is −10.6 °C (12.9 °F) at Stanthorpe on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage on 12 July 1965. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan The majority of the state has the arid and semi-arid climates. The southern coastal parts of the state have a Mediterranean climate with mild wet winters and hot dry summers. The highest rainfall occurs along the southern coasts and the Mount Lofty Ranges (with an average annual rainfall of 1,200 millimetres (47 in) in the vicinity of Mount Lofty); HP Pavilion dv7-1003eo CPU Fan the lowest rainfall occurs in the Lake Eyre basin where the average annual totals are less than 150 millimetres (6 in) and possibly even 100 millimetres (4 in). Most of the rain in the southern districts of the State fall during the winter months when the sub-tropical high-pressure belt is displaced to the north over the Australian continent. South Australia's mean temperature range is 29 °C (84 °F) in January and 15 °C (59 °F) in July. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan Daily temperatures in parts of the state in January and February can be up to 48 °C (118 °F). The highest maximum temperature was recorded as 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Oodnadatta on 2 January 1960, which is the highest official temperature recorded in Australia. The lowest minimum temperature was −8 °C (17.6 °F) at Yongala on 20 July 1976. Tasmania has a cool temperate climate with four distinct seasons. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan Summer lasts from December to February when the average maximum sea temperature is 21 °C(70 °F) and inland areas around Launceston reach 24 °C (75 °F). Other inland areas are much cooler with Liawenee, located on the Central Plateau, one of the coldest places in Australia with temperatures in February ranging between 4 to 17 °C (39 to 63 °F). SONY Vaio VGN-CR23/N CPU Fan Autumn lasts between March and May and experiences changeable weather, where summer weather patterns gradually take on the shape of winter patterns. The winter months are between June and July and are generally the wettest and coolest months in the state, with most high lying areas receiving considerable snowfall. HP Pavilion dv7-1129wm CPU Fan Winter maximums are 12 °C (54 °F) on average along coastal areas and 3 °C(37 °F) on the Central Plateau, thanks to a series of cold fronts from the Southern Ocean. Spring is a season of transition, where winter weather patterns begin to take the shape of summer patterns, with snowfall still common up until October. Spring is generally the windiest time of the year with afternoon sea breezes starting to take effect on the coast. HP Pavilion G72-b15EV CPU Fan Rainfall in Tasmania follows a complicated pattern rather analogous to that found on large continents at the same latitude in the Northern Hemisphere. On the western side rainfall increases from around 1,458 mm (57 in) at Strahan on the coast up to 2,690 mm (106 in) at Cradle Valley in the highlands. There is a strong winter maximum in rainfall: January and February typically averages between 30-40% the rainfall of July and August, Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX CPU Fan though even in the driest months rain usually falls on every second day and the number of rainy days per year is much greater than on any part of the Australian mainland. Further east in the Lake Country, annual rainfall declines to around 900 mm (35 in), whilst in the Midlands, annual rainfall is as low as 450 mm (18 in) at Ross and generally below 600 mm (24 in). HP Pavilion dv7-3080eg CPU Fan The eastern part of Tasmania has more evenly distributed rainfall than in the west, and most months receive very similar averages.The densely populated northern coast is much drier than the western side, with annual rainfall ranging from 666 mm (26 in) in Launceston to 955 mm (38 in) in Burnie in the north west and 993 mm (39 in) in Scottsdale located further to the east.[3HP Pavilion dv9233ca CPU Fan 0]Most rain falls in winter, and in summer the average can be as low as 31 mm (1 in) per month in Launceston. The east coast is wetter than the Midlands, with an average annual rainfall ranging from 775 mm (31 in) in St. Helens to around 640 mm (25 in) in Swansea. Here the rainfall is evenly distributed over the year but can be very erratic as heavy rainfalls from the warm Tasman Sea are quite frequent. HP Envy 14-1195la CPU Fan Whereas a three-day fall of 125 mm (5 in) occurs only once every fifty years on the north coast, it occurs on average once every four or five years around Swansea and Bicheno, and on 7–8 June 1954, there were many falls as large as 230 mm (9 in) in two days in that area. The east coast is sometimes called the "sun coast" because of its sunny climate. HP Pavilion dv6-2115sf CPU Fan Several sections of inland Tasmania, together with Flinders Island, were declared drought-affected areas by the state government in 2007. The highest recorded maximum temperature in Tasmania was 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) at Scamander on 30 January 2009, during the 2009 south-eastern Australia heat wave. Tasmania's lowest recorded minimum temperature was −13 °C (8.6 °F) on 30 June 1983, at Butlers Gorge, Shannon, and Tarraleah. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan Victoria has a varied climate despite its small size. It ranges from semi-arid and hot in the north-west, to temperate and cool along the coast. Victoria's main land feature, the Great Dividing Range, produces a cooler, mountain climate in the centre of the state. Victoria's southernmost position on the Australian mainland means it is cooler and wetter than other mainland states and territories. HP Pavilion dv7-1129wm CPU FanThe coastal plain south of the Great Dividing Range has Victoria's mildest climate. Air from the Southern Ocean helps reduce the heat of summer and the cold of winter. Melbourne and other large cities are located in this temperate region. The Mallee and upper Wimmera are Victoria's warmest regions with hot winds blowing from nearby deserts. Average temperatures top 30 °C (86 °F) during summer and 15 °C (59 °F) in winter. Victoria's highest maximum temperature of 48.8 °C (119.8 °F) was recorded in Hopetoun on 7 February 2009, during the 2009 south-eastern Australia heat wave. A screen temperature of 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) was recorded on 7 January 1906 inMildura. HP Pavilion G72-b15EV CPU Fan The Victorian Alps in the north-east are the coldest part of Victoria. The Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range mountain system extending east-west through the centre of Victoria. Average temperatures are less than 9 °C(48 °F) in winter and below 0 °C (32 °F) in the highest parts of the ranges. The state's lowest minimum temperature of −11.7 °C (10.9 °F) was recorded at Omeo on 13 June 1965, and again at Falls Creek on 3 July 1970. HP Pavilion dv6-2140se CPU Fan Victoria is the wettest Australian state after Tasmania. Rainfall in Victoria increases from north to south, with higher averages in areas of high altitude. Median annual rainfall exceeds 1,800 mm (71 in) in some parts of the north-east but is less than 250 millimetres (10 in) in the Mallee.